Monday, September 30, 2019

Chameleon Research Paper

Chameleon By: Taylor Ladd Classification: Phylum- Chordata, Class- Reptilia, Order- Squamata, Family- Chamaeleonidae, Genus- Chamaeleo, Species- Chameleon. Physical Description: The Chameleon is a colorful reptile with a tail and tongue the size of its body. Their body is covered in scales that can change color to blend in with its surroundings so it makes it an amazing creature. It has eyes that can rotate around so they can see behind them. Evolutionary Adaptations- The most amazing adaption that the Chameleon has is that they can change their color pigments to blend in with their surroundings to keep hidden from predators and prey.Chameleon’s have super long tongues so that they can extend them and slurp up their prey. They also have eyes that rotate around so they can see 360 degrees around them at all times to help them keep track of predators and prey. Life History: Life Span- 5 to 9 years varies by the species. Range/distribution- Half the world’s population of C hameleon’s is in Madagascar an island off the east coast of Africa. There are also Chameleon’s found in Africa, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Southern Spain, and India.Reproduction- Chameleon’s have internal fertilization, some species have live births others also lay eggs. Diet- Most Chameleon’s eat small insects. Some have been reported to have eaten wild berries and vegetable matter. Larger Chameleon’s will eat small birds, reptiles, and mammals. Habitat- Chameleon’s are mostly found in rainforest. They like to perch in trees and wait for prey to walk by. Defense Mechanisms- The Chameleon has one of the most rare defense mechanisms of all creatures, they can change color pigments to blend in with their surrounding so that they can slip by predators in stealth.They have eyes that can rotate around 360 degrees and see two things at once. Interesting Facts- When a male Chameleon find a female he wants to mate with he puts on a color show of all his b est colors and if the female is turned on she will run and they will play chase then mate. If the female is not turned on by the color show she will stand her ground and sometimes even fight the male. One rare this about this reptile is that some of its species have live birth and others have eggs which is pretty amazing. Chameleon By: Taylor Ladd

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Womens Place in Our Society

Today women are enjoying high place in our society because Islam has given them great respect. In the near past women were considered inferior to men. They were debarred from taking part in social life. Their sphere of activities was limited to domestic work. Up to the 19th century it was believed that women were the servants of the homes of their husbands. In those days women were not allowed to take part in political and social life and administration.Rousseau the French philosopher who never married once said The dignity of woman consists in being unknown to the world her glory is the esteem of her husband her pleasure the happiness of her family. Quite recently women have come to take more and more prominent part in many spheres of life In some respects they have excelled men. In sports intellectual and artist pursuits in office and industry they have set a new record of honesty and efficiency.They have succeeded marvelously as teachers and nurses goldsmith the famous poet and wr iter made a complaint two centuries ago Women famed of their valour their skill in politics or their learning have left the duties of their own sex in order to invade the privilege of ours. This is what the women are doing today. Now women are enjoying that place in society. Which they could never think of it past. There is particularly no field where women are not competing with men. In professions outdoor life and law they claim equality with men.In business trade industry in the learned professions in politics administration, scientific research literary and artistic activities. Eve is making herself felt everywhere. They are police and military officers. They are working as sale girls as air hostesses and as clerks and steno typists. They are turning out men from the posts of personal secretaries. As the days pass we have to get more and more used to the idea of seeing women working side by side of men riding driving, flying, playing even fighting. Even in Pakistan we have women athletes writers, leaders, administrators.They are fast discarding purdah and taking to active outdoor life. Law has given a woman a status equal to that of man. In nearly every democratic country women have the right to vote. Not only this now women got a chance to become the head of he state. The selection of Benazir Bhutto as Prime Minister twice in a great example of women's place in society. Many other women are also serving at key posts. Many thinkers including most of the Muslims do not like their idea of woman liking an active part in public life and in the professions.They argue that biologically woman's function is different from man's she has to be a mother. Women are not suitable for every job. They are too delicate to perform arduous duties of life. The real greatness of a woman lies in her role as mother. It is rightly said the hand that rocks the cradle rules the world. The mother who can bring up the right sort of children is really a great benefactor of society. Is lamic society gives a very respectable position to woman. The Holy Prophet has said â€Å"Verily the paradise lies under the feet of your mother†.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Reality Television Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Reality Television - Assignment Example Media provides knowledge through a never-ending list of channels like News, history, education, sports and so on. Initially, this field was restricted only to professionals. But with the advent of reality television shows, normal people found their way to participate and contribute towards media development. The initial efforts were first applied for on-air voice shows and after their resounding success made way into the visual screen; television. Reality television shows, which show real life, are generally unscripted drama or real events pictures on ordinary people rather than professional actors. In addition, hundreds of reality TV websites are devoted to keeping viewers informed about a different range of TV programmes related merchandise, news, and fan activities1. Ever since TV gained popularity, it is the fore-runner among media development giving a real-time account of happenings in the world. Based on featuring style, purpose and used situations, these shows can be broadly classified in categories like documentary-style, elimination game/quiz shows, self-improvement/makeover, dating shows, talk shows, hidden camera, and hoaxes2. There are lots of controversies regarding reality TV about being real. Many accidents happened during shows. And even many people don’t like it due to various reasons. Sometimes these persons are family members of a participant. In spite of these many obstacles, reality TV business in expanding daily and gaining more and more popularity. Reasons for this is its use to ordinary people, many social issues raised and many more. Next sections explain about reality TV in detail and convince the reader about how reality TV efficiently deals with issues like work, home, public, domestic, competition, co-operation, relationships, betrayal, deception, testing, trust, success, winning, failure, celebrity, voyeurism, surveillance and control.   Documentary style cinema and television shows are like ‘window on the world’ for their audiences.  

Friday, September 27, 2019

Supporting a difficult point Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Supporting a difficult point - Essay Example Performance anxiety over fixed tests and graded assignments inhibits high level thinking among students. Grading system usually associated with lot of projects, assignments and seminars. Since student’s performance will be rated in all of the above while deciding the grades, students will much tensed and they will not get opportunities for mental relaxation. The mental fatigue will be crucial factor associated with such projects and assignments. I know certain students engaged in getting the assignments done by others in order to reduce their work load. This habit will actually against the principles of the grading system. Students will learn nothing from such assignments done by others. The anxiety over grades will prevent students from developing as intellectual abilities. Students will concentrate more on their grades rather than anything else. Grades will create discrimination feeling among the students. Those who have secured ‘A’ grade will treat the ‘B’ or ‘C’ grade people as fools. This will result in, students losing interest in their studies and the classes. This inferiority will create desperations and frustrations among them. I know two persons who are teaching in a college. Both of them are teaching the same subject, but students are interested in the lecture classes of one more than the other. Interestingly the lecturer, whose classes labeled as boring by the students, secured much higher grades than the other lecturer during his studies. It clearly showed that grading system is not at all a reflection of abilities or intellectual level. In most of the universities grading will be done in a biased manner. Professors will have likes and dislikes upon certain students and while doing the internal assessment they will consider all such things. I have twice victimized while studying for my Bachelor course and Post Graduation course. During my Post Graduation studies one

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Interaction between business strategy and the use of guanxi in China Research Proposal

Interaction between business strategy and the use of guanxi in China - Research Proposal Example The guanxi business strategy will be measured according to the various aspects of business that can be influenced when it is implemented on individuals in the market. This research aims at collecting data that will be used to analyze the situation and give objective recommendations on the best business strategy to adopt in the whole issue for businesses to be sustainable. INTRODUCTION Background to Guanxi Guanxi is dated to very long in the history of the Chinese where there were many political and social upheavals in which people were killed and resources destroyed (Leung et al, 2011, p801). In those times, people were disintegrated and fought against each other as well as exploiting the weak to gain some properties from them and dominate them (Kang et al, 2007, p45). As a result guanxi was formed, which is a term that means a network through which people relate and help each other to secure favors as individual or in business and hence promote the wellbeing of each other. The Confu cius codified the individual, family and societal ties, which specified the responsibilities of different people in their environment and laid the expectation of the society on different people to ensure they fulfill them. During the times when China face social and political instabilities, the relationships established were important in preventing the spread of injustices and wars among the members who related with each other (Langenberg, 2007, p33). The Chinese society is established in units of families, in which the members have a certain kind of relationship that could be defined by blood, neighborhood, friendship or involving classmates who shared a class in school. All the members in this family are very loyal to each other but on the contrary, they have similar level of distrust on the non-members who could be around them (Tan and Chee, 2005, p204). This means that in order to extend business favor to any person in the Chinese society, the first consideration is the ties a p erson has with the one who possesses it and is ready to give out (Lee, Reiche and Song, 2010, p164). The people who are members of this same family are connected together in relation to a system of reciprocity and equity and that helps them to treat each other well so that they can also receive particular favors from them (Jin, Cheng and Yunjie, 2009, p161). On the other hand, there are different consequences that are associated with disregard to the commitment to one’s family whereby the errant loses his or her social reputation and prestige, which is a very important thing in the relationship of the people with each other (Guan, 2011, p5). Business interactions in China are established on the bases of these ties and they contribute to decisions that a person takes in a transaction or a venture that can extend a certain favor to a person or to both (Ruehle, 2010, p9). Guanxi principles have permeated to the political and other social relations to disrupt laws of justice that are enacted to curb favoritism because personal judgment is the conviction that people have to enable them to have all they need (Luo, 1995, p248 and; Luo and Chen, 1997, p7). In this respect, loyalty to the family becomes a very important thing, more than the loyalty one has on the government or other institution of the society that has similar or contrasting demands

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

What may be the 'Best Practices' so far as Action Planning is Assignment

What may be the 'Best Practices' so far as Action Planning is concerned - Assignment Example Non-discriminatory policies increase the rate of work commitment (Australian Human Rights Commission 2014). Delivering real value to customers helps them realize that they are valued by the provider of services which increase customer loyalty. The more customer loyalty there is, the higher competitive edge is achieved by an organization over rival companies. This is why making wise investments in this area is highly valuable making it one of the best practices of an action plan (Bradt, Check & Pedraza 2011). Employers and employees should continually strive to enhance their organization’s image. This helps the people realize that focus is not only concentrated on maximizing profit. Rather, the organization is conscientious enough to protect its reputation also (Nagy & Fawcett 2013). Customers have more confidence in those companies which have a very healthy image compared to those which have cracks in their images. Australian Human Rights Commission 2014, Developing an effective Action Plan, viewed, 07 June 2014, Nagy, J & Fawcett, SB 2013, Proclaiming Your Dream: Developing Vision and Mission Statements, viewed, 07 June 2014,

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

The Importance of Diversity in the University Research Paper

The Importance of Diversity in the University - Research Paper Example While institutional diversity is highly regarded as a positive thing by many, others argue that it can lead to institutional drift and mission overload if parity of esteem does not prevail between institutional types. Despite the many benefits associated with institutional diversity, many institutions of learning in the current day education system are highly characterized with student bodies which are highly deficient of the desired diversity (Vught, 2009). Many factors have been put forth to explain this severe lack of diversity in the institutions of higher learning among them being lack of proper selection mechanisms into the institutions of higher learning and discrimination during the selection process (Devins, 2003). Emergence of many private institutions offering higher education is another major causative agent for higher deficiencies of diversity in higher institutions of learning. Such institutions are merely profit driven and at times tend to compromise the educational va lues associated with diversity. They often concentrate on the breed of students who are capable of raising the huge amounts of tuition fees they charge with less regard to diversity balance (Warner and Palfreyman 2001). In attempts to enhance diversity in institutions of higher learning, states and governments have well defined legal provisions focusing on matters related to students’ diversity (Mellor, 2008). The numerous benefits associated with a diverse student body are universally acknowledged and practices such as provision of racial bonus points are constitutional in some nations. This offers the minority foreign applicants a higher probability of securing places in institutions of higher learning outside their own countries. In other provisions, race is an important factor during admissions for undergraduate programs (Vught, 2009). This helps to achieve a balanced ethnic diversity hence attaining the so much desired diversity in the student body. Notable also is the i ncorporation of affirmative action policies in many public education systems, a strategic move usually geared towards elimination of discrimination and also aimed at coming up with a student body which is ethically balanced in order to a achieve a diverse student body. In most states, measures to mitigate discrimination based on gender, colour, race, religion, which are deeply embedded in their constitutions (Bankston, 2006). Everyone has equal rights to access education and this further enhances diversity since selection process is free and fair and not in favor of any particular group of people. To further uphold diversity in higher institutions of learning, special consideration is usually given to special groups of people in the society (Pollak and Louis, 2005). Women and the disabled for instance are at times given special consideration during the selection process to ensure their numbers in the institutions of higher learning match that of their male counterparts. An important legal provision also aimed at upholding diversity in the institutions of higher learning is the great emphasis given to respect of basic human rights. For purposes of peaceful co-existence of the diverse student community, basic human rights such religious and cultural rights are highly upheld. This allows easy integration of people of different cultural and religious background in a

Monday, September 23, 2019

Artist Perception - Art and You Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Artist Perception - Art and You - Essay Example For this reason, we cannot base our arts education on photographs and reproductions of works of art. Photographs only give two-dimensional view of an object or person resulting in omission of important aspects. Reproduction of photographs is subject to bias as the painter may decide to include what they deem fit. As a result we can never completely understand the importance of art in any given era or culture (Marmor, 1997). In order for one to gain a deeper understanding of most of the art works, they have to see the object. As was mentioned earlier, photographs and their reproductions are subject to bias. Photographers choose views and angles that they think are most appropriate, beautiful and appealing to the eyes. As a result, some very crucial information is left out. When detailed understanding of human culture is to be obtained, a researcher has to be at the site (in person) so as to gain step-by-step analysis of the object. Art is one of the most interesting things that are appreciated worldwide. Personally I love paintings since they portray human talent at work. Given a chance to visit some of the ancient paintings, I would visit Leonardo da Vinci’s painting of Monalissa. This is because da Vinci was one of the finest painters in human history. He took his time perfecting the paint every time. It is said that it took him three years to complete the master piece. I would love to find out more about the painting and da Vinci himself (Marmor, 1997) Every time a person decides to do something, they do it for a reason. The same way artists have their own reasons for doing for doing specific art works. Therefore knowing artists at personal level creates a better understanding of art works. Interaction with artists can help us understand their perspective and reasons for creating given art works (Marmor, 1997). A good

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Barack Obama and Rick Santorum Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Barack Obama and Rick Santorum - Research Paper Example The paper will look into details in a succinct manner Rick Santorum’s policy regarding Iran and their weapons. Rick seems quite radical and static about the Iranians. In one of the NBC press, he stated that he would work effectively with Israel to dismantle the ongoing nuclear weapon making process in Iran. The policy is to ensure that the Iranians remains under the control of the US militia ands that they do not grow weapons that can harm the US, in one way or the other. Some people, especially the Muslims in the US, have seen this as a form of hatred that the aspirant has towards the Muslims in the United States. Other evidence is revealed on Rick’s claims on Obama’s religion. He supported a claim that the US president is a vowed Muslim and should not be the president of the US (Lysiak & Reddan, 2012). As a presidential aspirant, the above stand has seriously affected his candidature, especially among the American Muslims. Most Muslims have seen him as anti-Muslim aspirant, and quite a number of them have withdrawn their interest in him. His claim or policy has not affected any other US citizen apart from himself. His crucial support in Muslim societies has significantly gone

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Preparing for the BMAT (biomedical admissions test) Essay Example for Free

Preparing for the BMAT (biomedical admissions test) Essay The biomedical admissions test was created to assist medical and veterinary schools in the admissions process. Some of the universities have much more applications than places and the majority of these applications are strong. The BMAT allows the universities to filter out the strongest candidates based on exam performance. The BMAT exam lasts for 2 hours and is split into 3 sections. The examination test date is 31st October 2008. This article will aim to provide you with some advice and give an overview to students who are planning on taking the BMAT exam. †¢ aptitude and skills (1 hour) †¢ scientific knowledge and application (30 minutes) †¢ writing task (30 minutes) The universities which currently require you to take the BMAT are: †¢ The university of Cambridge †¢ The university of Oxford †¢ Imperial college London †¢ The royal veterinary college †¢ University of central London Aptitude and Skills This section aims to explore your problem solving skills, your ability to understand and interpret data and your analytical skills. It is multiple choice for the most. This is the main reason as to why you should guess intelligently, take a look at the given data and take a guess. Practice is key in this section. For the problem solving element of this section look at all the given data carefully. Here are some techniques to help you. †¢ Divide and conquer technique: Break down any large chunks of data into smaller chunks, making the smaller problems which are easier to solve and then once you have solved them put the data back together and form an answer. †¢ Trial and error: Use different approaches to come to a final conclusion and answer. †¢ Working backwards: start with one of the possible answers and work backwards from it. †¢ Incubation: This is a last resort method which seldom works. Put all of the starting details relating to a problem in your mind picture them and then stop focusing on them and carry on with the examination (take an intelligent guess). Your subconscious mind may come up with an answer during the rest of the examination The understanding and interpreting subset involves using the information in front of you, do not make assumptions unless it is appropriate to the question. Analyse all data given carefully not leaving anything out. The data analysis subset involves extracting certain points out of the data and using these to make suitable conclusions, to give the answer. Depending on the starting data you are provided with this could include using statistical methods, interpreting graphs, curve fitting or even eradicating unwanted information and prioritising said data. Scientific knowledge and application This section attempts to make students utilise their scientific knowledge to help them answer questions. Again this section is multiple choice, so make informed guesses when there is a need using the data given. This section also requires practice and revision of scientific principles in order to score high marks, so we advise you do some revision covering the basics of biology, chemistry and physics. Writing task The writing task is asking you to create an essay from a given question. Here are some general pointers to help you achieve a great score. †¢ Read: Read articles, newspapers, journals and book. This will help you to gain an understanding of how to put forward logical thought and will also help improve your English writing skills †¢ Partake in group discussions/debate forums: By doing this you will develop the skills that allow you to analyse certain situations and statements, in addition to developing the ability to generate a fair argument looking at both sides of the situation and can help you produce good conclusion. †¢ Good structure: Ensure you have an introduction, Main body and conclusion. By having an assigned essay structure your ideas will flow more freely and will follow a logical order that makes it easier for the reader to understand. †¢ Snappy conclusion and introduction: the introduction and conclusion can be the sections of your essay that sell it to the reader. Because these are the first and last things they read and so will remain in their mind the longest. An extremely good conclusion will stick in the readers head and maybe it might help you to boost your mark. Conclusion One key aspect for revision regarding the UKCAT is to sit some mock BMAT examinations; this will allow you to get a feel for the allocated time slot for the exam and thus ensure that you can finish all the questions. Some final general pointers I would like to add are 1. Don’t waste too much time on one question. 2. Generate a short plan for your writing task, just pointing out what you are going to cover and in what order. 3. Make sure you get plenty of rest before the exam. 4. If you have time available at the end of the exam use it to check over your answers.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Sickle Cell Anemia And Hemophilia Biology Essay

Sickle Cell Anemia And Hemophilia Biology Essay Abstract In the following paper, sickle cell anemia and hemophilia disorders were studied extensively. Sickle cell anemia was found to be the disorder where the red blood cells develop into sickle shaped cells due to a mutation of the hemoglobin protein. When the cell becomes sickle shaped, they also become sticky and will clump with other cells in the blood vessel. This can lead to decrease blood flow in that blood vessel which will lead to various effects. Sickle cell anemia is a hereditary disease in that it is passed down generations genetically. The main effect of sickle cell anemia is the decrease in number of red blood cells in the blood and lack of oxygen transport to certain areas of the body. Though are many drugs to help with the pain caused by sickle cell anemia, there is no definitive cure to the disorder. However, the main type of treatment is bone marrow transplant. However this procedure is very risky and not advised unless the symptoms of sickle cell anemia are severe. There is much research being done on sickle cell anemia, but no definitive cure has been found. The life expectancy of patients with sickle cell anemia is from 40 -60 years old and majority of the patients are African descent. Hemophilia is the disorder that prevents the body to stop bleeding. If a person is cut, the body will not form clots to stop the bleeding because people with hemophilia lack a clotting factor. This is also a genetic disorder and is found only on the X chromosome. Hemophilia can be divided into two categories: hemophilia A (lacks clotting factor 8) and hemophilia B (lacks clotting factor 9). About 9 out of 10 people who have hemophilia have type A. Rarely, hemophilia can be acquired. This means that you can develop it during your lifetime. About 18,000 people in the United States have hemophilia. Each year, about 400 babies are born with the disorder. Hemophilia usually occurs only in males (with very rare exceptions). The major signs and symptoms of hemophilia are excessive bleeding and easy bruising. The main treatment for hemophilia is called replacement therapy. Concentrates of clotting factor 8 or clotting factor 9 are slowly dripped in or injected into a vein. These infusions he lp replace the clotting factor thats missing or low. Hemophilia treatment centers are located in many areas of the United States. These centers can provide treatment, education, and support to hemophilia patients, their families, and their health care providers. Sickle Cell Anemia What is Sickle Cell Anemia? Sickle Cell Anemia or sickle cell disease is a blood disorder that is genetic. This disorder affects the red blood cells of the human body and can cause much damage to the body. It causes the red blood cells of the body to become an abnormal shape, usually in the shape of a sickle or crescent. Red blood cells are cells that carry nutrients and oxygen to different organs in the body and carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs. However, Sickle Cell Anemia basically does not allow for the red blood cells to act normally. The way a red blood cell is able to carry the oxygen molecules to the organs is by a protein molecule located on the cell called hemoglobin. This molecule is able to carry oxygen from the lungs to the bodys tissues and return carbon dioxide to the lungs. A defect of this molecule can affect every part of the body that is supplied oxygen by red blood cells which is everything. In Sickle Cell Anemia, the regular hemoglobin is mutated and changes from the normal hemoglobin A to hemoglobin S. the ability for a protein to be mutated that is located on the red blood cells means that this mutation can will be passed down to the persons child, making this disease hereditary. The mutated hemoglobin causes the entire normal red blood cell to become sickle shaped and stickier. The abnormal cells begin to clump together and have a difficult time being transported throughout the body through the blood vessels. When the blood vessels become obstructed by the sickle cells, blood flow decreases in that part of the body. This will cause a lack of oxygen in those areas which, ultimately, leads to those cells death. Another characteristic of Sickle Cell Anemia is that the abnormal red blood cells have a shorter life expectancy. Normal red blood cells usually live up to 120 days and through a process called phagocytosis they are removed from circulation. However, the red blood cells infected with the sickle cell disease live only about 10 to 20 days. This means that the body needs to produce ten times as many red blood cells if the person has Sickle Cell Anemia than a normal person. However, the body cannot produce that many red blood cells that fast. Red blood cells are produced in bone marrow, located in the inner hollow interior portion of bones, by a process called erythropoiesis. The bone marrow cannot produce red blood cells fast enough to replace the dying ones. This will lead to decreased number of red blood cells which can lead to many side effects. Causes of Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle Cell Anemia is a type of disease that someone cannot get unless if they were born with it. This disease is an inherited blood disorder that one is born with. A person is born with genes that give him/her distinctive appearance and personality. They get these genes from their parents, half from each. In Sickle Cell Anemia, there is a specific gene that can be passed down generation which will cause the disorder. This gene, sickle cell gene (HbAS), is a recessive type of gene which means that unless there is another one of it, it will not be expressed. However, that gene will be part of them forever and there will be a 50% chance that their child will have that gene. However, if two people with the sickle cell gene have a child, then there will be a 25 % chance that there child will have the disorder, 50% chance that their child will have only sickle cell gene, and 25% their child will have zero copies of the sickle cell gene. This gene which represents a specific trait will cause the Sickle Cell Anemia. Once the person has the trait, then it will begin to cause the body to make abnormal proteins on the red blood cells called hemoglobin. As discussed earlier, the mutated form of hemoglobin causes the cell to become sickle shaped and cause all sorts of havoc in the body. In addition, a distinctive trait about Sickle Cell Anemia is that once someone gets it, there is no way to get rid of it. Also since this is a genetic disease, there can be different variations of the disease. If a person inherits one sickle cell trait and if the person has the abnormal hemoglobin C (not hemoglobin S which is present in Sickle Cell Anemia), then the person will develop a milder form of the Sickle Cell Anemia disease called HbSC. If a person inherits one sickle cell gene and one gene for beta thalassemia (another type of anemia) which can be 0 or + then the person will either severe case of Sickle Cell Anemia (if HbS Beta 0- thalassemia) or a milder case of it (if HbS beta +-thalassemia). Symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia Even though that people are born with Sickle Cell Anemia, the symptoms do not appear until after 4 months of age. The symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia can be divided into three categories: symptoms related to anemia, symptoms related to pain, and symptoms that arise due to disorder. The first category deals with how the lack of red blood cells can affect the body. The most common symptom is fatigue because in order for the body to function and stay alert, it needs oxygen which is what anemia decreases. In addition, anemia causes dizziness, headaches, pale skin, chest pain, coldness in the hands and feet, and shortness of breath. These are all caused by the lack of oxygen reaching certain areas of the body. The second category deals with symptoms that are related to pain. A person with Sickle Cell Anemia is likely to express pain throughout their body which is called sickle cell crisis. This occurs when there is a mass of sickle cells in the blood vessels. With decreased blood flow to organs and limbs, there is usually sharp pain and organ damage. This crisis also has a range on how painful the pain is. If it is an acute pain, then the pain will be mild to severe and may last from hours to days. On the other hand, chronic pain will last for a lot longer period of time and will be hard to bear and mentally draining. This pain may severely limit your daily activities. The final category deals with the complications of Sickle Cell Anemia. This category examines certain complications that arise in certain areas of the body due to the Sickle Cell Anemia. The first complication is called Hand-Foot Syndrome. This occurs when the mass of sickle cells block a blood vessel in the limbs of the body. This will cause there to be pain, swelling, and/or fever. This is syndrome is one of the first signs an infant may have Sickle Cell Anemia. The next complication arises in the spleen. The spleen filters out abnormal red blood cells and helps fight infections. If a person has Sickle Cell Anemia, the spleen may become enlarged due to all of the sickle cells getting stuck in the spleen. If the spleen becomes enlarged, then the person will feel weak, have pale lips, higher respiration rate, extreme thirst, and abdominal pain. To treat the enlarged spleen, the patient should get a blood transfusion. Another complication that can occur is infections. Since Sickle Cell Anemia affects the immune fighting organ, the spleen, both young and old patients will have a hard time fighting infections. Young children who have a damaged spleen will most likely die in a few days due to the infections. Some common infections a child may get are pneumonia, meningitis, influenza, and hepatitis. Another life threatening complication due to Sickle Cell Anemia is acute chest syndrome. This occurs when there is sickle cells trapped in the lungs which may lead to the patient developing pulmonary arterial hypertension. This is when the lungs are damaged which make it hard for the heart to pump blood through the lungs. This will lead to elevated heart rate and pressure. A complication that is common with children is their delayed growth and puberty. This is caused by the shortage of red blood cells in the body. Young children will grow slower and reach puberty later than normal children. Adults will be thinner and smaller than normal adults. A more serious complication that can arise in adults however, is a stroke. Sickle Cell Anemia can cause both types of strokes in adults: a blood vessel in the brain is blocked or a blood vessel bursts. Both types of strokes lead to learning disabilities, brain damage, paralysis, or even death. Sickle Cell Anemia can also lead to priapism. This is when a male Sickle Cell Anemia patient will have painful unwelcomed erections. This will occur because the sickle cells block the blood flow out of an erect penis. Since sickle cells have a shorted life span, they break down too fast for the body to remove them from the body. When a red blood cell dies, it will release the hemoglobin protein in the form of bilirubin. The bilirubin will form stones in the gallbladder called gallstones. This will cause the patient to feel pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, sweating, chills, clay-colored stools, or jaundice. Jaundice is when the skin color of a patient turns to a yellowish color because of elevated bilirubin level in the blood. A more severe symptom of Sickle Cell Anemia are ulcers or sores that begin as small, raised, crusted sores on the lower third of the leg. Leg sores occur more often in males than in females. These sores usually appear between the ages of 10 and 50. The cause of sickle cell ulcers isnt clear. The number of ulcers can vary from one to many. Some heal quickly, but others persist for years or come back after healing. The last major complication of Sickle Cell Anemia is multiple organ failures. This may be one of the more rare complications but is one of the most dangerous. If too many of your organs fail, then there is a high probability that you will die. Though only a few of the symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia have been presented, there are many more which can lead to serious damage to the body if gone unattended. Demographics Though Sickle Cell Anemia is a worldwide disease, it is most common in people who come from Africa, South America, Central America, specifically panama, the Caribbean islands, Turkey, Greece, Italy, other Mediterranean countries, India, and Saudi Arabia. Statistically, 1 in every 500 African American births has the sickle cell disease and about 1 in every 1,000 Hispanic Americans have the disease. About 2 million people carry the sickle cell trait in America and about 1 in 12 African Americans carry the trait in America. There have been close to 72,000 cases of Sickle Cell Anemia in America and the prevalence rate in America is 0.10% or 272,000 people. The deaths from Sickle Cell Anemia are close to 500 deaths per year. Diagnosis One way someone can find out if they have Sickle Cell Anemia is by a simple blood test. When a baby is born, he/she will go through a series of newborn screening exams which test for diseases or disorders the baby may have. A blood test will show if the baby has the disease or if he/she has only the trait. Once the tests are conformed by a second test, the baby will be sent to a hematologist who is a specialist in blood diseases and disorders for further guidance. There is also a way for a parent to know if their child will have sickle cell anemia before he/she is born. Doctors do this by taking a sample of amniotic fluid or tissue from the placenta and testing it for sickle cell anemia gene instead of the hemoglobin the gene makes. Treatment Treatment for sickle cell anemia can be divided in to the three categories that were created for the different types of symptoms. The first category was the pain category. To treat the pain caused by sickle cell anemia, pain killers and fluids are used. To treat the pain, fluids and pain killers are used because the fluids will prevent dehydration which is caused by the disease. The pain killers that doctors prescribe can include acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and narcotics which include meperidine, morphine, oxycodone and others. Another drug that doctors use for sickle cell anemia is hydroxyurea. This drug will reduce the number of pain crises the patient experiences. This drug does not treat the pain crises when they occur but prevents them from occurring at all. Also research has found that this drug will reduce organ damage and improve growth of children. The treatment discussed in the next category, symptoms that deal with Anemia, can help treat anemia. The treatment is called blood transfusion and is used to treat severe cases of anemia. Blood transfusion is a procedure where blood is given to the patient by an intravenous line. This is done to replace the dead red blood cells that were a result of the disease. The last category dealt with complications that arise due to sickle cell anemia. One complication that can be treated is an infection. Due to the reduced number of red blood cells, the human immune system is weakened and children will be at risk for harmful infections. One infection that usually kills children is pneumonia. To treat pneumonia, children should take vaccines regularly. Also to treat other infections, antibiotic medicines and blood transfusion may be used. To treat the acute chest syndrome that arises from sickle cell anemia, the patient must get treated with oxygen, blood transfusions, and antibiotics. The main medication for this complication is the same one that reduces the number of pain crises, hydroxyurea. To prevent and treat patients with sickle cell anemia that experience strokes, the patient should get ultrasound scans of their heads. This will allow the doctor measure the blood flow to the brain see if there are any complications due to the sickle cell disease. The ulcers in the leg can be treated with pain killers, cleansing solutions, creams or ointments, and skin grafts (for severe ulcers). And lastly, to treat the gallstones, surgery may be needed to remove them from the gallbladder. Surgery can also be used to help patients that have priapism. Since the discovery of sickle cell anemia, doctors have been working hard to find new treatments for the disease. In recent years, there have been new and experimental treatments that help patients with the disease. One of these treatments is bone marrow transplant. Since the sickle cell anemia affects the red blood cell production, it was thought that replacing the material the produces the cells may help people with the disease. After numerous trials, it has been shown that bone marrow transplant is somewhat of a cure. However, the procedure is very dangerous and lead to serious side effects or even death. Due to this risk, only young patients and people with significant symptoms or problems get the treatment. The procedure is still being researched. Another experimental treatment is gene therapy. Gene therapy is when researchers insert the normal gene for hemoglobin creation into the bone marrow of infected patients. Researchers hope that the normal genes will begin to produce the correct hemoglobin or if they can cancel the sickle cell gene by turning it off in babies. In addition, researchers are producing new drugs that may help patients. On drug has butyric acid in it which can increase the amount of normal hemoglobin in the blood. Another drug has nitric oxide in it which makes the actual sickle cells less sticky which will lead to less blocked blood vessels. The final drug contains decitadine. This will increase the amount of certain hemoglobin protein that carries more oxygen. Though there are many drugs that seem that they will work, there still more research to be done. Research Due to the severity of sickle cell anemia, there are many doctors working hard to find a definitive cure. One research that may help with finding a cure dealt with the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease. The research group studied the mechanism of its development, and its prospective prognostic significances. They performed Doppler echocardiographic assessments of pulmonary-artery systolic pressure in 195 consecutive patients (82 men and 113 women with the average age of 36). The pulmonary hypertension was prospectively defined as a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second. Patients were followed for a mean of 18 months, and data were censored at the time of death or loss to follow-up. The group reached the following results. They determined that the Doppler-defined pulmonary hypertension occurred in 32 percent of patients. Multiple logistic-regression analysis, with the use of the dichotomous variable of a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of less than 2.5 m per second or 2.5 m per second or more, identified a self-reported history of cardiovascular or renal complications, increased systolic blood pressure, high lactate dehydrogenase levels (a marker of hemolysis), high levels of alkaline phosphatase, and low transferrin levels as significant independent correlates of pulmonary hypertension. The fetal hemoglobin level, white-cell count, and platelet count and the use of hydroxyurea therapy were unrelated to pulmonary hypertension. A tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second, as compared with a velocity of less than 2.5 m per second, was strongly associated with an increased risk of death and remained so after adjustment for other possible ri sk factors in a proportional-hazards regression model. They came to the following conclusions. They believed that the pulmonary hypertension, diagnosed by Doppler echocardiography, is common in adults with sickle cell disease. It appears to be a complication of chronic hemolysis, is resistant to hydroxyurea therapy, and confers a high risk of death. Social Impact Though many believe that living with sickle cell anemia is impossible, that is not true. The infected people can live like any other person with just a few deviations. The only negative thing about living with sickle cell anemia is that the life expectancy is between 40 and 60 years old. However a person can live longer if they maintain a healthy lifestyle, control the complications that arise from the disease, and if they learn the correct ways to cope with the pain. A healthy life style means you eat healthy foods or foods that contain certain vitamins that may help your body cope with the disease. An example of a vitamin would be folic acid. Also doctors advise patients to drink plenty of water so he/she wont become dehydrated. To help prevent and control the complications of sickle cell anemia, the patient needs to follow certain instructions and warnings. Some of these instructions and warnings include avoiding decongestants and drugs that tighten blood vessels. Also the patient should avoid living in extreme hot and cold areas or in low oxygen level areas (well above sea level cities). Also doctors recommend that the patient avoid or reduce stress in their life and to avoid jobs that require a lot of physical labor. In addition, the patient should get all of the vaccines and flu shots that are available. Though following doctors recommendations will help a patient, learning and studying different treatments and lifestyle choices on their own can help them a lot. If a patient reads about sickle cell anemia, they will be better equipped to deal with symptoms and complications that may arise. If you or someone in your family has sickle cell anemia, you may want help with the stresses of this lifelong disease. Sickle cell centers and clinics can provide information and counseling. Ask your doctor or the staff at a sickle cell center if there are support groups for families in your area. Talking with others who are facing the same challenges you are can be helpful. Its especially important to find ways to control and cope with pain. Different techniques work for different people, but it might be worth trying heating pads, hot baths, massages or physical therapy. Prayer, family and friends also can be sources of support. If you have a child with sickle cell anemia, learn as much as you c an about the disease and make sure your child gets the best health care possible. A child with sickle cell disease has special needs and requires regular medical care. Your doctor can explain how often to bring your child for medical care and what you can do if he or she becomes ill. Conclusion Sickle cell anemia is a significant disease that must be addressed immediately. The number of people that know about sickle cell anemia is alarmingly low and that must change. People must become aware of the dangers of this disease and must do everything in their power to help prevent it from spreading. This disease can lead to death in infants, children, teens, and adults. It is also a worldwide disorder that needs more attention. This disease, which is genetically passed down to people, needs more people researching it and trying to find cures to. Though there are many doctors hard at work to find a cure, there can be so much more that can be done. Though there is a group of people unaware of this disease, it does not mean the work already done should be neglect. Through the hard work of doctors, we have been able to find almost every symptom of sickle cell anemia and how to treat most of the symptoms. To find a cure for sickle cell anemia, everyone must do their part and help in some way. Hemophilia What is Hemophilia? Hemophilia is a blood disorder that prevents your blood to clot normally. When the body experiences an injury where the person begins to bleed, the body reacts in a very unique manner. Blood is a liquid membrane that is composed red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The purpose of the blood is to transport nutrients and oxygen from the lungs to different areas of the body and to transport carbon dioxide and waste from those areas back to the lungs. Blood also serves as a transport system for white blood cells which are part of the immune system and fighters of the immune system. However, blood also serves as a clotting mechanism. In order for the body to clot an injury, platelets must be able to stick together at the injury site. This stickiness is called the blood clotting factor. Hemophilia is a disorder that causes people to have little to none clotting factor. Hemophilia is usually an inherited disease which does not allow your blood to clot externally or internally. People with hemophilia will have a gene that will cause the clotting factor, a protein, to not work properly which will cause the patient to keep bleeding. The clotting factor is needed to form clots with platelets. Hemophilia can be divided into two major types: hemophilia A or hemophilia B. about 9 out of 10 people who have hemophilia will have type A hemophilia which means the body is missing or has low levels of clotting factor 8. If the person has type B, then they are missing or have low levels of clotting factor 9. In addition, hemophilia is usually genetically acquired but some can develop hemophilia during their lifetime. This can happen if your body forms antibodies (proteins) to the clotting factors in your bloodstream. The antibodies can prevent the clotting factors from working. Causes of Hemophilia A person usually inherits hemophilia but as discussed earlier, they can develop hemophilia during their lifetime. If a disease is inherited, then that means the parents of the patient will also have the gene for the disease. In the case of hemophilia, the gene for hemophilia is located on the X chromosome. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. Only the X chromosome carries the genes related to clotting factors. A male who has the abnormal gene on his X chromosome will have hemophilia. A female must have the abnormal gene on both of her X chromosomes to have hemophilia; this is very rare. A female is a carrier of hemophilia if she has the abnormal gene on one of her X chromosomes. Even though she doesnt have the condition, she can pass the gene on to her children. If a father does not have the hemophilia trait but the mother does have only one copy of the gene and they have 2 daughters and 2 sons, then each daughter has a 50 percent chance of inheriting the abnormal gene from her mother and being a carrier. Each son has a 50 percent chance of inheriting the abnormal gene from his mother and having hemophilia. However if the father has hemophilia and the mother has neither hemophilia or the hemophilia trait and they have 2 daughters and 2 sons, then each daughter will inherit the abnormal gene from her father and be a carrier. None of the sons will inherit the abnormal gene from their father, and, therefore, none will have hemophilia. Very rarely, a girl is born with hemophilia. This can happen if her father has hemophilia and her mother is a carrier. In addition to the genes that cause hemophilia, there are other factors that may cause it. One factor is the type of clotting factor that the person is missing. If the person has hemophilia A, then the person lacks clotting factor 8. If the person has hemophilia B, then the person lacks the clotting factor 9. Finally, if the person has Hemophilia C which is rare in the United States, then person has a different inheritance pattern and lacks clotting factor 9. Symptoms of Hemophilia The main symptom of hemophilia is excessive bleeding externally and internally. The extent of bleeding depends on the type and severity of the hemophilia. Children who have mild hemophilia may not have symptoms unless they have excessive bleeding from a dental procedure, an accident, or surgery. In addition, the symptoms of hemophilia vary depending on how deficient your clotting factors are. If levels of your deficient clotting factor are very low, you may experience spontaneous bleeding. If levels of your deficient clotting factor are slightly to moderately low, you may bleed only after surgery or trauma. If you bleed spontaneously then you have the following symptoms: many large or deep bruises, joint pain and swelling caused by internal bleeding, unexplained bleeding or bruising, blood in your urine or stool, and prolonged bleeding from cuts or injuries, or after surgery or tooth extraction. Bleeding in the knees, elbows, or other joints is another common form of internal bleeding in people who have hemophilia. This bleeding can occur without obvious injury. At first, the bleeding causes tightness in the joint with no real pain or any visible signs of bleeding. The joint then becomes swollen, hot to touch, and painful to bend. Swelling continues as bleeding continues. Eventually, movement in the joint is temporarily lost. Pain can be severe. Joint bleeding that isnt quickly treated can permanently damage the joint. Internal bleeding in the brain is a very serious complication of hemophilia that can happen after a simple bump on the head or a more serious injury. The signs and symptoms of bleeding in the brain include long-lasting, painful headaches or neck pain or stiffness or convulsions or seizures. Demographics Hemophilia affects 1 in 5,000 male births. About 400 babies are born with hemophilia each year. The exact number of people living with hemophilia in the United States is not known. Currently, the number of people with hemophilia in the United States is estimated to be about 20,000. In the United States, most people with hemophilia are diagnosed at a very young age. Based on CDC data, the median age at diagnosis is 36 months for people with mild hemophilia, 8 months for those with moderate hemophilia, and 1 month for those with severe hemophilia. In about two thirds of cases, there is a family history of hemophilia. The diagnosis of hemophilia is made using a special blood test and most babies can be tested soon after birth. Sometimes prenatal genetic testing is done to diagnose hemophilia before birth. Treatment Though, like sickle cell anemia, there is no definitive cure for hemophilia, there are many treatments that help people cope with the disease. However, the treatments people get is based on the severity of the disease. However there is main treatment for hemophilia; it is called replacement therapy. In this therapy, the missing clotting factor is injected into the body intravenously to replace the clotting factor. Though this treatment sounds good, there is a drawback, the patient has to continuously take injections of the therapy to prevent bleeding. Antifibrinolytic medicines (including tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid) may be used with replacement therapy. Theyre usually given as a pill, and they help keep blood clots from breaking down. Another complication to this treatment is that the body may develop antibodies that act against the new clotting factor or there might be damage to joints, muscles, or other parts of the body resulting from delays in treatment. Antibodies can destroy the clotting factor before it has a chance to work. This is a very serious problem. It prevents the main treatment for hemophilia (replacement therapy) from working. Antibodies to clotting factor, also called inhibitors, develop in about 20 percent of people who have severe hemophilia A and 1 percent of people who have hemophilia B. When antibodies develop, doctors may use larger doses of clotting factor or try different clotting factor sources. Sometimes, the antibodies go away. Desmopressin (DDAVP) is a man-made hormone used to treat people who have mild to moderate hemophilia A. DDAVP isn

Thursday, September 19, 2019

William Butler Yeats poem, Leda and the Swan and Fred Chappel’s Narcissus and Echo :: Yeats Leda and the Swan Essays

William Butler Yeats poem, Leda and the Swan and Fred Chappel’s Narcissus and Echo Poets use many different stylistic devices to capture the attention of the reader. After all, who wants to read a boring poem? Many times, it is the opening line that acts as the "hook." What better way to capture someone's attention than to incite emotion with the first word. Some poets use form to their advantage. Perhaps by writing the words out in different shapes, they will create a broader readership. Some poets use symbolism, or structure to benefit their artistic license. I prefer the subtler and less common stylistic devices. Fred Chappel, in "Narcissus and Echo," and William Butler Yeats poem, "Leda and the Swan." use different, yet effective stylistic devices to capture the attention of the reader and hold on to them throughout the entire poem. By echoing the last sound of each line in his poem, Chappel is able to create two separate poetic rhythms. The first is the fundamental poem written about two mythological characters. Narcissus, the first character, was so enthralled with his own beauty that he fell in love with his own reflection in a pond. He, being so brokenhearted that he could never be with his true love (himself), wasted away until all that was left was a beautiful flower. Hence that flower called Narcissus. Echo is the other character in this "tragic" love story. She fell in love with Narcissus. This was before he turned into a flower, of course. She followed him, trying to speak to him but in his vanity he did not notice her. She was heartbroken and withered away until all that was left was her voice to follow him. Hence the echo. It was her voice combined with his reflection that Narcissus fell in love with. After all, who wouldn't want to hear their words echoed back to them by their lover? Chappel uses this story as the base for his poem, which seems to be of Narcissus' love. The difference is that the words that are echoed back are not quite the same as the original. They seem to be almost an ironic look into the shallow nature of this character. In the seventh line, Chappel brings this irony to light when he writes, "teasing playfully the one being. Unbeing" (181), almost as if he is trying to tell Narcissus that his love is a pretense.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Herbert George Wells :: essays papers

Herbert George Wells One of the most prolific writers of his time, H.G. ( Herbert George) Wells was able to do it all. He was universal, and could write from many different sides. He was one of the most versitile writers, as he could write like a novelist, as in the The History of Mr. Polly. He could also write short stories, like The Star, or The Door In The Wall. He was also considered to be a visionary and a dreamer, as shown throughout A Modern Utopia, and Men Like Gods. What Wells was most famous for was his ability to be a scientific romancer. His novels, The Time Machine, The War of The Worlds, and The Invisible Man, were what he became most widely known for. All his writings, in the different genere's they were written from, truly prove he was one of the most versitile writers that ever lived. The date was September 21, 1866, and the place was 47 (now renumbered 172) High Street, Bromley, Kent, a suburb of London.. His father, Joseph Wells, and his mother, Sarah, had been married in 1853 and they had four children. An elder sister, Fanny, had died at the age of 9 two years before H.G. was born. After he was born, his family was worried that he may also die like his sister Fanny, being that he was a sort of "weakling" and struggled to not get sick most of the time. His father was a shopkeeper and a professional cricketer, and his mother served from time to time as a housekeeper at the nearby estate of Uppark. His father's business failed and the family never made it to middle-class status, so Wells was apprenticed like his brothers to a draper, spending the years between 1880 and 1883 inWindsor and Southsea as a drapeist. In 1883 Wells became a teacher/pupil at Midhurst Grammar Scool. He obtained a scholarship to the Normal School of Science in London and studied there biology under T.H. Huxley. However, his interest faltered and in 1887 he left without a degree. He taught in private schools for four years, not taking his B.S. degree until 1890. Next year he settled in London, married his cousin Isabel and continued his career as a teacher in a correspondence college. From 1893 Wells became a full-time writer. After some years Wells left Isabel for one of his brightest students, Amy Catherine, whom he married in 1895.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

La Moulin Galette

Michael Priddy Angela Brasser, Adjunct Professor Art 100 November 8, 2010 Le Moulin De La Galette The year was 1876 when Pierre Augustus Renoir painted his Le Moulin De La Galette this piece of art was in the style of impressionism. This was a fairly new art style during these years thus making it very popular at the time. Renoir’s works has endured the test of time with the popularity of his art and is still one of history’s more prominent artists.The painting itself was an open-air oil portrait on canvas that measured 4ft. 3in. X5ft. 8in. the composition of the painting was of a large outdoor gathering of music and dancing which included many of Renoir’s friends, including one of his closest friends Georges Rivie`re. The following year while at the third impressionist exhibit of 1877 Rivie`re described the painting as follows: â€Å"It is a page of history, a precious monument to Parisian life, Done with rigorous exactitude.No one before Renoir had thought of portraying an event in ordinary life on a canvas of such big dimensions† (Rivie`re quote, Sayer 493) The type of line generally employed throughout the painting is primarily expressive and flowing, this is generally type of line impressionist used in their paintings. When Renoir painted this portrait his use of line seemed to soften the overall look of the painting. While there are areas in the painting where the artist’s line are more structured and deliberate the overall feel of the painting is that the line is free flowing and expressive.Renoir’s use of space is very precisely controlled by the overlapping of figures in the painting to create the feel of a large outdoor courtyard. While the overlapping of the figures create the feel of an open courtyard, it also portrays at the same time how completely cramped and crowded the dance area seems to be, this also helps define the space and also creates a feel of movement in the painting. Renoir’s scale that he placed on the table and the people around it, compared to the dancers in the rest of the painting helped the viewer take in the entire painting and gave it a sense of balance.The colors in the paintings palette were mostly analogous cool colors of different shades of blues and greens. There are other colors used in the painting and these are used in the complementary manner in order to intensify each color, there were fewer areas of complementary colors in the painting this was probably done in this manner to keep your eyes going to different focal points in the painting. Impressionism is a style of painting that uses a command of light and shadows and colors by discontinuous brush strokes to represent the effects of light.It shows that light can be reflected to show color in shadows and not just the brown or black darkness of a shadow that is typically described as a shadow. To many this mastery and skill of using light is one of the most important skills in painting. Renoir co mpletely showed his skill of adding light to his portraits by creating a feel of the sun cascading through the canopy of trees in the courtyard. All through the painting the viewer will see small streams of light gently falling onto the people and furnishings in the courtyard.There does seem to be a repeating pattern in the painting especially in the way the same colors are used throughout the painting and how there seems to be certain figures looking directly towards you. By the way Renoir used this type of line orientation also helps in defining the relationship of space by having different figures looking directly at you from different levels in the painting thus creating a feel of spatial depth.The focal point and emphasis of the painting seems to have been placed on the area where the woman is leaning down with her hand placed upon the young girl in the striped dress, the lady is in conversation with one of the young men at the table. The young girl has her gaze focused beyond the scope of the painting possibly watching the band as they play the music that the group is enjoying and dancing too or maybe another activity that has caught her attention.One of the identifiable figures in the painting was of the male who is seated at the table to the far right who seems to be either writing or possibly sketching the lady, who used as the focal point, by the way he is so closely looking at her trying either to take in all she is saying or to study her for his sketch. That male figure in fact is of Georges Rivie`re the friend of Renoir who was mentioned earlier. The painting has used asymmetrical balance; this type of approach differs from symmetrical balance, which is when there are components on each side of the portrait that mirror each other (Sayer 145).Another way Renoir created and shown asymmetrical balance in this portrait was from the larger area of the table and the guests around it and how it compared to the other areas of where the dancers have gather ed. Also the darker and more prominent areas of the painting are balanced by the open area where the sunlight seems to show an area of the ground. By doing this the artist has added the balance of the lightened area to the shaded darker area, and also the area of less activity to area of the dance floor, by doing this you are again drawn back to the focal point of the painting.This analysis has focused on certain parts of Renoir’s La Moulin De La Galette, but a viewer must try to be able see how each of the parts simply compliment each other to completely appreciate this wonderful art work. People have often stated many times in the past that â€Å"I don’t know art, but I know what I like† with this attitude a viewer will be able to enjoy this painting immensely, but when you realize and see the way Renoir used so many artistic tools and techniques to achieve this work of art, then the viewer will be able actually to appreciate this art work.The skill and though t that have been used on this painting is obviously evident. Most of Renoir’s paintings have a more somber feel and approach, but this painting depicts a fun and lighthearted day that was overly filled with dancing, music and wine that was enjoyed by all in attendance. {Total word count 1103}Work cited Sayer, Henry M. The World of Art. Ed. Leah Jewell published by Pearson Education Inc. as Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Printed text

Monday, September 16, 2019

Corporation: Weekly Reflection Essay

3.1 Differentiate types of stocks issued by corporations. The team concluded that the different types of stocks issued by a corporation are common stock, preferred stock, and treasury stock. Everyone is aware that common stock gives stockholders the right to vote on actions dealing with corporate earnings through the acquisition of dividends, and keeping the same percentage of shares when new stocks are issued. Preferred stocks are additional class of stocks issued by corporations to appeal to more investors. Treasury stock is stock that a company has issued, and then reacquires. Though everyone is aware of what types of stocks are issued by corporations, there are still some areas where team members expressed still being confused. One of those areas of concern deals with authorized stock and why companies do not put a par value on a stock to determine its value. Another area of confusion deals with treasury stock and grasping the concept. In relation to each member’s organization and the issuance of stock, everyone expect for one team member works for a non-profit organization or a company that does not issue stock. The one member, however, works for an airline and expressed that the company, United Airlines, has common and treasury stocks (United Continental Holdings, Inc., 2010). 3.2 Calculate stocks, dividends, and stock splits. For objective 3.2, some team members seem to understand better than others, what is involved in the calculation of stocks, dividends, and stock splits. Stock is calculated by subtracting the dividends of a certain stock from the company’s net income, then dividing that number by the number of outstanding shares. To calculate dividends multiply the number of shares by the annual dividend to find out how much the dividend payment will be, find the yield on investment a dividend payment represents by multiplying the dividend by the amount paid per share of stock, Calculate the dividend-payment ratio, and then figure out the dividend cover (earnings per share divided by the dividend) (Adkins, 2009-2013). As expressed early, more than not, members had a problem grasping the premise to calculating stock. In relation to each member’s employer organization, three of five have not had dealings with stock or they are not aware of the exact actions their company takes when it comes to calculating stocks, dividends, or stock splits. One member did however mention investing in stock indexes not including the organization she works for. Another member shared how he was able to actually view an investment split which helped him better understand. 3.3 Record treasury stock transactions. This objective seems to be the most confusing for the team. It is understood by all members that treasury stock is stock that has been issued by an organization, and then reacquired. However, there is still confusion about understanding the concept behind it. One member did express that her organization buys treasury stock to help cover them in situations such as the fluctuation of the economy. They would also try to sell the stock for equal value so more people would want to invest. References Adkins, W. D. (2009-2013). How to Calculate a Dividend Payment. Retrieved from United Continental Holdings, Inc. (2010). Annual Report. Retrieved from Weygandt, J. J., Kimmel, P. D., & Kieso, D. E. (2010). Financial accounting (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from University of Phoenix eBook database

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Introduction to Computer Theory

CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND The twentieth century has been filled with the most incredible shocks and surprises: the theory of relativity, Communist revolutions, psychoanalysis, nuclear war, television, moon walks, genetic engineering, and so on. As astounding as any of these is the advent of the computer and its development from a mere calculating device into what seems like a â€Å"thinking machine. † The birth of the computer was not wholly independent of the other events of this century.The history of the computer is a fascinating story; however, it is not the subject of this course. We are concerned with the Theory of Computers, which means that we form several abstract mathematical models that will describe with varying degrees of accuracy parts of computers and types of computers and similar machines. Our models will not be used to discuss the practical engineering details of the hardware of computers, but the more abstract questions of the frontiers of capability of these mec hanical devices.There are separate courses that deal with circuits and switching theory (computer logic) and with instruction sets and register arrangements (computer ar-chitecture) and with data structures and algorithms and operating systems and compiler design and artificial intelligence and so forth. All of these courses have a theoretical component, but they differ from our study in two basic ways. First, they deal only with computers that already exist; our models, on 3 4 AUTOMATA THEORY the other hand, will encompass all computers that do exist, will exist, and that can ever be dreamed of.Second, they are interested in how best to do things; we shall not be interested in optimality at all, but rather we shall be concerned with the question of possibility-what can and what cannot be done. We shall look at this from the perspective of what language structures the machines we describe can and cannot accept as input, and what possible meaning their output may have. This descripti on of our intent is extremely general and perhaps a little misleading, but the mathematically precise definition of our study can be understood only by those who already know the concepts introduced in this course.This is often a characteristic of scholarship—after years of study one can just begin to define the subject. We are now embarking on a typical example of such a journey. In our last chapter (Chapter 31) we shall finally be able to define a computer. The history of Computer Theory is also interesting. It was formed by fortunate coincidences, involving several seemingly unrelated branches of intellectual endeavor. A small series of contemporaneous discoveries, by very dissimilar people, separately motivated, flowed together to become our subject.Until we have established more of a foundation, we can only describe in general terms the different schools of thought that have melded into this field. The most obvious component of Computer Theory is the theory of mathematic al logic. As the twentieth century started, mathematics was facing a dilemma. Georg Cantor (1845-1918) had recently invented the Theory of Sets (unions, intersections, inclusion, cardinality, etc. ). But at the same time he had discovered some very uncomfortable paradoxes-he created things that looked like contradictions in what seemed to be rigorously proven mathematical theorems.Some of his unusual findings could be tolerated (such as that infinity comes in different sizes), but some could not (such as that some set is bigger than the universal set). This left a cloud over mathematics that needed to be resolved. David Hilbert (1862-1943) wanted all of mathematics put on the same sound footing as Euclidean Geometry, which is characterized by precise definitions, explicit axioms, and rigorous proofs. The format of a Euclidean proof is precisely specified. Every line is either an axiom, a previously proven theorem, or follows from the lines above it by one of a few simple rules of in ference.The mathematics that developed in the centuries since Euclid did not follow this standard of precision. Hilbert believed that if mathematics X'ere put back on the Euclidean standard the Cantor paradoxes would go away. He was actually concerned with two ambitious projects: first, to demonstrate that the new system was free of paradoxes; second, to find methods that would guarantee to enable humans to construct proofs of all the true statements in mathematics. Hilbert wanted something formulaic-a precise routine for producing results, like the directions in a cookbook.First draw all these lines, then write all these equations, then solve for all these points, and so on and so on and the proof is done-some approach that is certain and sure-fire without any reliance BACKGROUND 5 on unpredictable and undependable brilliant mathematical insight. We simply follow the rules and the answer must come. This type of complete, guaranteed, easy-to-follow set of instructions is called an a lgorithm. He hoped that algorithms or procedures could be developed to solve whole classes of mathematical problems.The collection of techniques called linear algebra provides just such an algorithm for solving all systems of linear equations. Hilbert wanted to develop algorithms for solving other mathematical problems, perhaps even an algorithm that could solve all mathematical problems of any kind in some finite number of steps. Before starting to look for such an algorithm, an exact notion of what is and what is not a mathematical statement had to be developed. After that, there was the problem of defining exactly what can and what cannot be a step in an algorithm.The words we have used: â€Å"procedure,† â€Å"formula,† â€Å"cookbook method,† â€Å"complete instructions,† are not part of mathematics and are no more meaningful than the word â€Å"algorithm† itself. Mathematical logicians, while trying to follow the suggestions of Hilbert and st raighten out the predicament left by Cantor, found that they were able to prove mathematically that some of the desired algorithms cannot exist-not only at this time, but they can never exist in the future, either. Their main I result was even more fantastic than that.Kurt Godel (1906-1978) not only showed that there was no algorithm that could guarantee to provide proofs for all the true statements in mathematics, but he proved that not all the true statements even have a proof to be found. G6del's Incompleteness Theorem implies that in a specific mathematical system either there are some true statements without any possible proof or else there are some false statements that can be â€Å"proven. † This earth-shaking result made the mess in the philosophy of mathematics even worse, but very exciting.If not every true statement has a proof, can we at least fulfill Hilbert's program by finding a proof-generating algorithm to provide proofs whenever they do exist? Logicians bega n to ask the question: Of what fundamental parts are all algorithms composed? The first general definition of an algorithm was proposed by Alonzo Church. Using his definition he and Stephen Cole Kleene and, independently, Emil Post were able to prove that there were problems that no algorithm could solve. While also solving this problem independently, Alan Mathison Turing (1912-1954) developed the concept of a theoretical â€Å"universal-algorithm machine. Studying what was possible and what was not possible for such a machine to do, he discovered that some tasks that we might have expected this abstract omnipotent machine to be able to perform are impossible, even for it. Turing's model for a universal-algorithm machine is directly connected to the invention of the computer. In fact, for completely different reasons (wartime code-breaking) Turing himself had an important part in the construction of the first computer, which he based on his work in abstract logic.On a wildly differ ent front, two researchers in neurophysiology, Warren 6 AUTOMATA THEORY Sturgis McCulloch and Walter Pitts (1923-1969), constructed a mathematical model for the way in which sensory receptor organs in animals behave. The model they constructed for a â€Å"neural net† was a theoretical machine of the same nature as the one Turing invented, but with certain limitations. Mathematical models of real and abstract machines took on more and more importance.Along with mathematical models for biological processes, models were introduced to study psychological, economic, and social situations. Again, entirely independent of these considerations, the invention of the vacuum tube and the subsequent developments in electronics enabled engineers to build fully automatic electronic calculators. These developments fulfilled the age-old dream of Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716), and Charles Babbage (1792-1871), all of whom built mechanical calculating devic es as powerful as their respective technologies would allow.In the 1940s, gifted engineers began building the first generation of computers: the computer Colossus at Bletchley, England (Turing's decoder), the ABC machine built by John Atanosoff in Iowa, the Harvard Mark I built by Howard Aiken, and ENIAC built by John Presper Eckert, Jr. and John William Mauchly (1907-1980) at the University of Pennsylvania. Shortly after the invention of the vacuum tube, the incredible mathematician John von Neumann (1903-1957) developed the idea of a stored-program computer.The idea of storing the program inside the computer and allowing the computer to operate on (and modify) the program as well as the data was a tremendous advance. It may have been conceived decades earlier by Babbage and his co-worker Ada Augusta, Countess of Lovelace (1815-1853), but their technology was not adequate to explore this possibility. The ramifications of this idea, as pursued by von Neumann and Turing were quite pr ofound. The early calculators could perform only one predetermined set of tasks at a time.To make changes in their procedures, the calculators had to be physically rebuilt either by rewiring, resetting, or reconnecting various parts. Von Neumann permanently wired certain operations into the machine and then designed a central control section that, after reading input data, could select which operation to perform based on a program or algorithm encoded in the input and stored in the computer along with the raw data to be processed. In this way, the inputs determined which operations were to be performed on themselves.Interestingly, current technology has progressed to the point where the ability to manufacture dedicated chips cheaply and easily has made the prospect of rebuilding a computer for each program feasible again. However, by the last chapters of this book we will appreciate the significance of the difference between these two approaches. Von Neumann's goal was to convert th e electronic calculator into a reallife model of one of the logicians' ideal universal-algorithm machines, such as those Turing had described.Thus we have an unusual situation where the advanced theoretical work on the potential of the machine preceded the demonstration that the machine could really exist. The people who first discussed BACKGROUND 7 these machines only dreamed they might ever be built. Many were very surprised to find them actually working in their own lifetimes. Along with the concept of programming a computer came the question: What is the â€Å"best† language in which to write programs?Many languages were invented, owing their distinction to the differences in the specific machines they were to be used on and to the differences in the types of problems for which they were designed. However, as more languages emerged, it became clear that they had many elements in common. They seemed to share the same possibilities and limitations. This observation was at f irst only intuitive, although Turing had already worked on much the same problem but from a different angle. At the time that a general theory of computer languages was being developed, another surprise occurred.Modem linguists, some influenced by the prevalent trends in mathematical logic and some by the emerging theories of developmental psychology, had been investigating a very similar subject: What is language in general? How could primitive humans have developed language? How do people understand it? How do they learn it as children? What ideas can be expressed, and in what ways? How do people construct sentences from the ideas in their minds? Noam Chomsky created the subject of mathematical models for the description of languages to answer these questions.His theory grew to the point where it began to shed light on the study of computer languages. The languages humans invented to communicate with one another and the languages necessary for humans to communicate with machines s hared many basic properties. Although we do not know exactly how humans understand language, we do know how machines digest what they are told. Thus, the formulations of mathematical logic became useful to linguistics, a previously nonmathematical subject. Metaphorically, we could say that the computer then took on linguistic abilities.It became a word processor, a translator, and an interpreter of simple grammar, as well as a compiler of computer languages. The software invented to interpret programming languages was applied to human languages as well. One point that will be made clear in our studies is why computer languages are easy for a computer to understand whereas human languages are very difficult. Because of the many influences on its development the subject of this book goes by various names. It includes three major fundamental areas: the Theory of Automata, the Theory of Formal Languages, and the Theory of Turing Machines.This book is divided into three parts correspondi ng to these topics. Our subject is sometimes called Computation Theory rather than Computer Theory, since the items that are central to it are the types of tasks (algorithms or programs) that can be performed, not the mechanical nature of the physical computer itself. However, the name â€Å"computation† is also misleading, since it popularly connotes arithmetical operations that are only a fraction of what computers can do. The term â€Å"computation† is inaccurate when describing word AUTOMATA THEORY processing, sorting and searching and awkward in discussions of program verification. Just as the term â€Å"Number Theory† is not limited to a description of calligraphic displays of number systems but focuses on the question of which equations can be solved in integers, and the term â€Å"Graph Theory† does not include bar graphs, pie charts, and histograms, so too â€Å"Computer Theory† need not be limited to a description of physical machines but can focus on the question of which tasks are possible for which machines.We shall study different types of theoretical machines that are mathematical models for actual physical processes. By considering the possible inputs on which these machines can work, we can analyze their various strengths and weaknesses. We then arrive at what we may believe to be the most powerful machine possible. When we do, we shall be surprised to find tasks that even it cannot perform. This will be-our ultimate result, that no matter what machine we build, there will always be questions that are simple to state that it cannot answer.Along the way, we shall begin to understand the concept of computability, which is the foundation of further research in this field. This is our goal. Computer Theory extends further to such topics as complexity and verification, but these are beyond our intended scope. Even for the topics we do cover-Automata, Languages, Turing Machines-much more is known than we present he re. As intriguing and engaging as the field has proven so far, with any luck the most fascinating theorems are yet to be discovered.

Lorrie Moore

In the story â€Å"How to Become a Writer†, Lorrie Moore takes the reader through what seems to be her own Journey on how she became a writer. The story is told in Second Person. The way she writes, in second person, she seems to take the reader personally through her Journey on â€Å"How to Become a Writer†, but you, the reader are the character. Moore writes about how â€Å"you† will apply to college, â€Å"you† will show up to the wrong class, and â€Å"your† mother will not understand this writing gig.Her style eems to draw the reader in hanging on for the next thing that will happen in â€Å"your† life. She effectively makes the audience feel like they are at college, in the wrong class or that they are simply standing in their kitchen showing their mom the haiku they wrote at the ripe age of fifteen and she stares at them â€Å"Blank as a donut† (Moore p. 652) and she says â€Å"How about emptying the dishwasher†(Moore p. 652). The common theme of this story is that â€Å"you† are always struggling with a plot, and o one quite understands â€Å"your† writings.This struggle is a relevant struggle for Moore, as well as many young college students. Through out the short story she explains this common trend of â€Å"no plot† and even still you read on and can not help thinking is there a point to this story? The no plot theme seems to take a deeper role. As most will struggle with the choices of life and a fair amount of people will even feel as if they have remained stagnant and really not done too much.Moore really drives this point home. She makes the reader really relate. College students can especially relate. With all the dysfunction a college student endures with choosing what to do and then like Moore having second thoughts and changing their major. This story was witty and sarcastic. Leaving you with a perm-a-grin, because you can totally relate. The style of writing was som ething unusual for me to be reading but I greatly enjoyed it. Although weird it was intriguing.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Motivation and Organisational Behavior

What is motivation? Motivation is define as the stimulus that drives, direct and maintaining the human behavior to reach goals (Wood et al. , 2006). In the context of workplace, motivation will be the one that drive the employee to perform and give more effort to contribute in the company or organization growth. Hence, it is crucial that manager keeps their employee or workers motivated. In this essay, one out of four content theories and one out of two process theory will be defined out and compared out. There are 2 types of motivation theory: Content and process theory. While content theory looks to factors within the individual and attempt to answer most of the â€Å"what† question in the context of motivation, process theory emphasize more on â€Å"how† does someone gets motivated. (Vincent Gabriel, 2003). A few theorists that have contributed to the few famous theories are Maslow, Herzberg, Atkinson, and McClelland (Vincent Gabriel, 2003). In theory, there is a continuous relationship between need (drive), tension, action and satisfaction (Reduction of drive). But in reality, it might be more complex than just those 4 actions. These are because: People’s needs are changing over time, and how people react to failure plays a part too. For example a failure to someone will demoralize him, and yet it might push another person to strive for to be better. Hence, their varying needs translated into varying actions of each individual. (Vincent Gabriel, 2003). One of the famous theories in terms of motivation is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory. In this theory, Abraham Maslow defined out human needs in 5 steps, with each lower step must be satisfied or fulfilled before advancing to the further steps. He identify higher order needs, such as self esteem and self actualization and lower order needs such as social, safety and physiological needs (wood et al, 2006). Maslow rank these needs up by assuming which needs are more important, hence the need to satisfy it before other needs can serve as motivators. (Wood et all, 2006). According to Maslow himself, once the lower needs have been satisfied, it will not serve as the motivator anymore (Udechukwu, 2009). For example, for a normal human, the most basic needs include food, water and a place to live. Once this eeds have been fulfilled, he will then move on to the next hierarchy: safety. To put it in rough term, he will then want to be able to continue to eat and drink, hence he will find a job and a source of income to do so. Once that is satisfied too, and then he will be able to move on to the next level, so on and so forth. Hence, as you can see, a person will continue to climb the â€Å"pyramid† until he reaches the top of the scale: self actualization. From here onward, he then will think on how to expand himself further, and start fulfilling other aspect of needs. As what have written previously, while content theory like Maslow’s hierarchy of needs explains out on what are the factors that motivate people, there’s process theory that explain on how does the motivator motivate people, or even, whether is the motivator effective or rather counter-productive instead? In this essay, for the process theory, we are going to look at Adam’s equity theory. Equity theory suggests that employee must develop a sense of fairness after comparing themselves against their peer or others. Huseman et al suggest that there are three types of individuals (Shore, 2004). They are: ‘Benevolents’, who are described as â€Å"giver†, who prefer to have given more input than output. There’s also ‘Entitleds’, who are the â€Å"getter†, who on the contrary to the â€Å"giver†, will feel discontent and unfair when their input is larger than their output, and finally, the third type of individual is the one that what Huseman called Equity Sensitives, who will adhere to the old equity theory and will just stick with the balance of input and output (Shore, 2004). With all the individuals defined, Equity theorist starts to predict that benevolent, entitled, and equity sensitives will respond differently to fairness in workplace. For example, benevolent (giver) will feel more satisfied when they feel that they are under-rewarded than when they were over-rewarded. On the contrary, Entitleds (taker), will feel unsatisfied when they were under-rewarded. On a field study done by Huseman, what have been found out about these 3 individuals is that, indeed that both entitleds and equity sensitives are behaving like what was predicted, but on the contrary of the expectation, enevolents do get more satisfied when they were over-reward (Shore, 2004). This strange phenomenon happened too on other studies by King et al (1993), Alien and White(2002), and also Sauley and Bedeian(2000). Even though all those studies have their own limitation, we can safely conclude that the benevolents are the most tolerant to the under-reward and also more satisfied than the other 2 types of individuals (Shore, 2004). To compare and contrast both the content and process theory mentioned above, we can rather say that they both must be practiced in the workplace instead of only choosing either one. As what have been mentioned earlier on, the content theory is only explain out the â€Å"what† factor of a human motivator. For this, Maslow basically theorized based on what does one needs that haven’t been fulfilled and arranging them up in a hierarchy order (Harris et al, 1993). Whereas process theory will be dwelling on the nature on how or what problem does human see and perceived and whether it will motivate them. To put it simply, what have been explained above about equity theory is that even with a reward, it may affect different individuals differently. Before we look into how a job design actually helps in motivating an employee in a company, let’s take a look on what actually is a job design and what are some of the characteristic first. A job design is basically a planning and specification of a job task so that the job are done like how we want it to be (Wood et al, 2006). Under the job design itself, there are four major areas that we will want to cover later on. Those four are: job simplification, job enlargement, job rotation, and job enrichment. To explain these four aspects better, let us examine a short and simple case of a pirate ship (Rao, 2010). In a pirate ship, there are a lot of jobs involved. It can be as small as normal pirate crew, to the extent until the captain of the ships. Different job have different scopes that need to be fulfilled. Now if we were to design a job in this ship, how will we be able to design it up then? A group of people in MBA have actually grouped them up into two categories: the star tasks and the guardian tasks. The star tasks job scope include target identification, command in the battle until the negotiation for alliance between fleet. Whereas, the guardian task job is rather more operational, such as allocating crews, solving conflicts, executing punishment, distributing loot evenly until the role of medic (Rao, 2010). The question is, is it really efficient then, to lump all those tasks into two groups only? Well, the answer is most probably quite obvious: No. In such setting of the pirate ship, it will be rather hard for one individuals to be able to have the skills to be the Great Star or Great guardian, since both of them require a totally different set of skills. What will happen is that with this kind of job design, it will discourage a crew member to apply for the position of the star or guardian position. In this case, we will want to use job simplification to analyze and solve this issue. Job simplification is meant to make someone excel in a job(wood et al, 2006), for example, a crew member of the ship will be task to do a specific job only (eg. Negotiating with other fleet). In the long term, the crew member will get better and better in that area of job. The strength of this job design approach, however, is its biggest weakness also. This is because, since that the job have been simplified, the crew member will get bored doing it again and again for so many years already. This is when we will want to other approach such as job enlargement, job enrichment and job rotation. Job enlargement involves combining two or more skills that were assigned to separate workers previously (Wood et al, 2006). The only difference between this and the job simplification is that now the worker are responsible over different areas and also have more jobs to do (eg. Negotiator can also be tasked to manage the navigation). The other approach that involves equipping the crew or worker with more skills is job rotation. This approach can be defined as working different tasks or in different position for a set of time (Kaymaz, 2010). This approach focus more on the flexibility of the worker, decreasing the monotony, supporting career development, enabling high level of adaptation, and also to decrease stress (Kaymaz, 2010). With all those advantage, the most obvious disadvantage will most probably that the crew or worker will spend too much time to adapt and learn different sets of skills. Last but not least is the job enrichment approach. This involves in adding responsibility to the worker, making their job is more in depth. (wood et al, 2006). With all those job design approach been defined out, it will then enable us to combine and come up with a set of approach that we can use so that our employee are motivated. An appropriate job design can always motivate the employee up if we identify out, each and every single needs of an employee. A new employee that recently joined the company will most probably want to fulfill his physiological needs; hence he will want to have the appropriate salary. If his performance is good most of the time, and the company wants to retain him, the company must takes in the account on whether he is â€Å"benevolents† type or the â€Å"entitleds† type to measure the tolerance level on deciding his pay. Once all of those approach has been made, company must also keep close look on the employee, so that they can react fast to apply other approach such as job enlargement or even to the extent of job enrichment and empowerment if the employees begun to show signals that they are not motivated anymore. And now, we have covered the content theory of Maslow, the Adam’s Equity theory for the process theory in the context of motivation theory, and we also have covered job design approach and how to apply it in the company and organization. Hence it will be pretty obvious, that to motivate people, we will want to know what’s the key motivator is the person, whether he will be motivated with the changes that have been made and also how can the company change to motivate him better.