Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Over the past few years, the Fed had been trying to heal the economy from the recession by lowering the interest rate near zero in order to raise the inflation, increasing the price of housing and household wealth. This will encourage more people to buy products or services, causing an increase in consumers spending. Based on the data given by the U.S. Department of Commerce today, the economy is now healing from the recession with the expansionary monetary policy. However, some people argue that it takes too long for the recovery to happen and suggests that it is time for the Fed to come out with an exit strategy. However, I think the Fed should stick with its policy because it manages to improve the economy. Therefore, I think the FedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Based on his statement, the cyclical unemployment will lead to structural unemployment in a long period of time. When this becomes structural unemployment, unemployed may lose the skills over time, causing them to be less committed to the labor force and the economy. In order to solve this situation, the Fed has to consider the unemployment rate. If the unemployment rate rises, then Fed will need to think of an exit from expansionary policy. But if the unemployment rates decreases, then the Fed can stick to its policy. As for the other concerns, some were worried the inflation rate caused by the expansionary policy. They are afraid that it might unleash higher inflation and that inflationary expectations are bound to jump at any time. By solving this situation, the Fed had to closely monitor the inflation rate. If it is below the expectation, then Fed can stick with the policy. If not, Fed will have to consider about the exit strategy. Changes in interest rate will impact on the economy. It can affect the consumption spending, the inflation rate, the unemployment and employment rate, and the GDP. Consumption spending is affected by interest rate is because when the interest rate is low, people will be willing to borrow money from bank and spend it on goods or services, allowing the spending to go up. When the spending goes up, the inflation and GDP will increase. Then,Show MoreRelatedThe Economic Crisis Of Western Central Banks Essay2433 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesin 2008, western central banks have since applied a series of unconventional monetary policies besides normal ones. One of the characteristics of the unconventional policies is the intended near-to-zero interest rates, so those policies are also named Zero Interest Rate Policies (ZIRP). ZIRP are designed to help the financial market escape from the Ã¢â¬Å"liquidity trapÃ¢â¬ , a situation in which normal expansionary monetary policies fail to decrease intere st rates below zero and thus become ineffective. WithoutRead MoreThe Risk Associated With Currency Exposure1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfluctuations in exchange rates and how that risk relates to our organization; Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc. (CCE). Serving customers for the last 128 years, our products are now available in more than 200 countries around the world. As our global presence continues to grow, so too does our exposure to fluctuations in currencies other than our base currency, the US dollar. Worldwide, we own assets and owe liabilities, earn revenues and pay expenses in 71 foreign currencies . As such, it is now more importantRead MoreEurope Economic Crisis55278 Words Ã |Ã 222 Pagesotherwise indicated, the texts are published under the responsibility of the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs of the European Commission, BU24, B-1049 Brussels, to which enquiries other than those related to sales and subscriptions should be addressed. LEGAL NOTICE Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on its behalf may be held responsible for the use which may be made of the information contained in this publication, or for any errors which, despite careful preparation
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
The Tragic Story of Judas Iscariot Judas Iscariot. A man who usually strikes fear into the hearts of Christians and Jews alike. But who is this praised man of Kerioth, really? He betrayed our LORD for 30 silver shekels. Yet, there HAS to be SOME good in him, or else, why on earth would Jesus pick him? Ill inform you on Judas possible motives, thoughts that may have been running through his head before and after the fact, his culpability, and the status of his soul. Most people believe Judas only motive for betraying Jesus to the Sanhedrin was greed. Others say he might be trying to simply get Jesus to confound His enemies, not get condemned. I believe the latter is more correct. First off, 30 silver shekels is not much, aboutÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Now hes probably thinking How could this happen?! Why me?!? I dont want to go to Hell!!!! I refuse to believe what He said about me!!!! And at that very moment, Satan possesses him (John 13:27). Which brings us to our next point. When you are possessed by the Devil, you have no control over your body or actions. Yet you still have full knowledge of whats happening; its like being trapped in an inescapable glass box. So is Judas accountable? My theory is yes, because he did not try to stop Satans influences. But this also applies to the other Eleven; they didnt try to exorcise Judas, cast Satan out of him, or simply prevent him from carrying out his wicked plan. They could clearly see what happened to Judas; how else would John 13:27 be in there? The other Disciples, ipso facto of them not doing anything, were aiding and abetting Satan. Shame on them. Now, after the Sanhedrin condemned Jesus, Judas was filled with remorse and repented. However, he then hanged himself. This now raises the question: where is Judas soul? My theory is that since Judas was wracked with guilt and declared, Ive sinned!!!! Ive betrayed innocent blood!!!!! (Luke 27:4), this means he has the Holy Spirit in him, because, if he didnt, he would have felt no remorse, and the Holy Spirits job is to convict us of sin, and anyone with the Holy Spirits indwelling is saved. But then theres that curse Jesus pronounced upon JudasShow MoreRelatedJesus: The Tragic Hero Essay830 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWith Christianity being the number one universalizing religion, many are familiar with at the story of Jesus Christ of Nazareth. Though they may not actually belong to the religion, many also celebrate the holidays of Christmas and Easter, both of which are extremely important days in the Christian religion. These two have been used for marketing seasonal goods to the United States in particular. Christmas is the time of extravagant spending for the gifts of children and loved ones, while EasterRead MoreThe Woman Who Speaks to the Man Who Employrs Her Son1524 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Woman Speaks to the Man Who Has Employed Her Son Summary: The persona in this poem is telling the story of a mother who loved her son. The mother became aware of the childs presence when she experienced morning sickness. She placed all her hopes in the child and raised him as a single parent because his father was indifferent to the childs existence. The mother had set no barriers on what the child could become, but he grows up to work for some criminal who drags him into a war and gives himRead MoreEssay Passion of the Christ560 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesreview that said if it was good or bad or if it was well acted or if it was worth the watch. Everyone just seemed to be interested in saying that it is too violent, the movie should not have been made and Mel Gibson shouldnt be making money from a story about Jesus. (It made $212m in its second weekend in the US) In my opinion its better to see a film without hearing too much about it beforehand. With The Passion I was expecting to be bored for the first hour while seeing Christ preaching toRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1141 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat all ends on a foul note. However, in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic play, Othello, Othello ends his life on an unforeseen Ã¢â¬ËpositiveÃ¢â¬â¢ note, with an understanding of his flaws, and a realization that Desdemona and himself were both upstanding individuals. His egocentric personality remains consistent, yet this self-dominant personality slides away ever so slightly to show his feelings for her and regret. This claim of OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËpositiveÃ¢â¬â¢ yet tragic understanding of his own self is seen throughout the playRead MoreInferno Research Paper1715 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesemotional and frequently faints when he becomes overly frightened or moved. In Canto III, Dante is warned by Charon to keep away from the dead so uls. This warning, along with a sudden earthquake, causes Dante to faint. In Canto V, Dante hears of the tragic love story of Paulo and Francesca and how they ended up in the Second Circle of Hell, designed for the Lustful, those who committed sins of the flesh. Dante is overcome with pity and faints again. In the Seventh Circle of Hell, Dante is approached by aRead MoreDantes Inferno and The Afterlife Essay1819 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFor centuries humans have been drawing parallels to help explain or understand different concepts. These parallels, or allegories, tell a simple story and their purpose is to use another point of view to help guide individuals into the correct line of thought. Ã¢â¬Å"The only stable element in a literary work is its words, which if one knows the language in which it is written, have a meaning. The significance of that meaning is what may be called allegory.Ã¢â¬ (Bloomfield) As Bloomfield stated, it is onlyRead MoreEssay on American Musicals2785 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesled nowhere. The shows were deprived of tune and were unmelodic and formless. With rare exceptions, audiences rarely left the theatre singing the show tunes. Rock and roll couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be assimilated in a dramatic structure. The songs just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t tell a story. It was not until 1960 that Broadway faced up to the rising trend. Finally, musical theatre accepted rock music into its production. Never will audiences see new musicals in the style of Oklahoma!, Brigadoon and South Pacific. These musicals wereRead MoreChristian Prejudice and Racial Discrimination of Marginalized in the Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare3691 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesinfluential models for the character of Shylock were no doubt drawn from literature, not real life. The Jewish villain was a stock character in medieval literature. Medieval passion plays, reenactments of the story of the crucifixion of Jesus, invariably portrayed the disloyal disciple Judas Iscariot as a stereoty pical Jew. Of course, historically, Jesus and all of his disciples were Jewish, but this was ignored. Subsequent authors, when they portrayed Jewish characters at all, they always cast them as
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Social institutions Essay Social institutions can be found all though out the world. Social institution is a system of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic societal needs. It may differ from place to place. One good example of a social institution would be found in the film, The Dead Poets Society. It tells about and shows how each of the students at Welton Academy have different ways at handling their set of social institutions. Each student learns with the help of their new teacher, Mr. Keating, that they should be free thinkers and seize the day and not to waste life because it is very precious. Some important institutions that will be viewed are family and education institutions. Family is a very important institution that comes to mind when discussing different types of social institutions. Family is a group of people who are related by marriage, blood, or adoption and who live together and share economic resources. American families are organized by di fferent types of form groups. A nuclear family consists of one or both parents and their children. The nuclear family is the family form that is most recognizable to Americans. Then there is the extended family. The extended family consists of three or more generations of a family sharing the same residence. Nuclear families and extended families often are part of a much larger kinship system. Kinship refers to a network of people who are related by marriage, birth, or adoption. American marriage patterns are usually a monogamy, which means that a marriage of one man to one woman is present. Another American pattern is neolocality which means that a newly married couple is free to set up access of individuals and groups to power and social rewards. From these perspectives we can see the role that each of them takes at Welton Academy. Welton Academy I think would mostly be looked at under the conflict perspective because of how expensive it is to enroll in the school. It limits the b est education to the rich. The school i?s when Charlie wanted to permit girls a Welton and printed an article in the school newspaper. With that event he crossed the line between right and wrong and had to be punished to teach him of his wrongdoing. got hit I also think that with these strict rules, hard entrance rate and high tuition fee limits who can attend the school and usually cuts out all of the bad students that would be disturbance to the operation of the school. The enforcing of norms through either internalization or sanctions is called social control. Agents of social control include authority figures, the police, the courts, religion, the family, and public opinion. The principle means of social control in all societies, though, is self-control, learned through the internalization of norms. When a societygot hit I also think that with these strict rules, hard entrance rate and high tuition fee limits who can attend the school and usually cuts out all of the bad students that would be disturbance to the operation of the school. The enforcing of norms through either internalization or sanctions is called social control. Agents of social control include authority figures, the police, the courts, religion, the family, and public opinion. The principle means of social control in all societies, though, is self-control, learned through the internalization of norms. When a societys methods for ensuring conformity break down, social stability is lost. If people are killing one another, stealing, and fighting in the streets, then social order is jeopardy. Social control is important. No society can survive for long without an effective system of social control. Individuals must follow certain rules of behavior if society is to function smoothly. In the film Mr. Keating tells about the dangers of conformity. He says to be free thinkers and go for your goals in life. He said dont always follow what others do and try o be your own leader. He said that conformity is good to a certain point and be careful not to cross th e line between right and wrong. Some gos also very strict limiting what the students can do.I think that Welton Academy maintains the stability and smooth operation of society by being strict and hard on the students. One incident is Charlie Daytons punishment for trying to permit girls at?od examples in the film of how conformity can be positive or negative is when Charlie Dalton didnt want to walk outside with his class because he wanted to exercise his right of conformity. This was a positive event of conformity. One negative example is when Charlie wanted to permit girls a Welton and printed an article in the school newspaper. With that event he crossed the line between right and wrong and had to be punished to teach him of his wrongdoing. Adolescence is a unique stage in a persons life. The adolescence is caught between two worlds no longer a child and not yet an adult in the eyes of society. Adolescence can be defined as the period between the normal onset of puberty and the beginning of adulthood. Some of the characteristics of adolescence are undefined status, search for self, increased pressure, and problems of suicide. Undefined status means that being an adolescent people are confused on how to treat you. Some treat adolescents like adults while others treat them like children. Adult society seems to have conflicting attitudes toward adolescents. Another characteristic is increased pressure. Adolescents are faced with pressure from many sources such as school, friends, and parents. Parents for instance, generally make rules stating what time their adolescent children must be home, who they can see, and where they can go. Yet parents want their children to be sociable. Yet thus people are under pressure to strike the balance between parental wishes and peer pressure. Adolescents also have pressures put on them in school. They are pressured to attend class, complete assignments, pass tests, and participate in school clubs and activities. One other characteristic that is important is search for self. Adolescence are mature enough to think about themselves and what they want out of life. They can sort through their values and decide what things really are important to them. They can establish personal norms that will guide their behavior. They can set priorities for their lives. One aspect of finding yourself is preparing for future roles. Thus anticipatory socialization is important part of adolescent development. Anticipatory socialization refers to f-control, learned through the internalization of norms. f-control, learned through the internalization of norms. got hit I also think that with these strict rules, hard entrance rate and high tuition fee limits who can attend the school and usu ally cuts out all of the bad students that would be disturbance to the operation of the school. E E Cummings-life And Work EssayThe enforcing of norms through either internalization or sanctions is called social control. Agents of social control include authority figures, the police, the courts, religion, the family, and public opinion. The principle means of social control in all societies, though, is self-control, learned through the internalization of norms. When a societygot hit I also think that with these strict rules, hard entrance rate and high tuition fee limits who can attend the school and usually cuts out all of the bad students that would be disturbance to the operation of the school. The enforcing of norms through either internalization or sanctions is called social control. Agents of social control include authority figures, the police, the courts, religion, the family, and public opinion. The principle means of social control in all societies, though, is self-control, learned through the internalization of norms. When a societys methods for ensuring conformity break down, social stability is lost. If people are killing one another, stealing, and fighting in the streets, then social order is jeopardy. Social control is important. No society can survive for long without an effective system of social control. Individuals must follow certain rules of behavior if society is to function smoothly. In the film Mr. Keating tells about the dangers of conformity. He says to be free thinkers and go for your goals in life. He said dont always follow what others do and try o be your own leader. He said that conformity is good to a certain point and be careful not to cross th e line between right and wrong. Some good examples in the film of how conformity can be positive or negative is when Charlie Dalton didnt want to walk outside with his class because he wanted to exercise his right of conformity. This was a positive event of conformity. One negative example is when Charlie wanted to permit girls a Welton and printed an article in the school newspaper. With that event he crossed the line between right and wrong and had to be punished to teach him of his wrongdoing. Adolescence is a unique stage in a persons life. The adolescence is caught between two worlds no longer a child and not yet an adult in the eyes of society. Adolescence can be defined as the period between the normal onset of puberty and the beginning of adulthood. Some of the characteristics of adolescence are undefined status, search for self, increased pressure, and problems of suicide. Undefined status means that being an adolescent people are confused on how to treat you. Some treat adolescents like adults while others treat them like children. Adult society seems to have conflicting attitudes toward adolescents. Another characteristic is increased pressure. Adolescents are faced with pressure from many sources such as school, friends, and parents. Parents for instance, generally make rules stating what time their adolescent children must be home, who they can see, and where they can go. Yet parents want their children to be sociable. Yet thus people are under pressure to strike the balance between parental wishes and peer pressure. Adolescents also have pressures put on them in school. They are pressured to attend class, complete assignments, pass tests, and participate in school clubs and activities. One other characteristic that is important is search for self. Adolescence are mature enough to think about themselves and what they want out of life. They can sort through their values and decide what things really are important to them. They can establish personal norms that will guide their behavior. They can set priorities for their lives. One aspect of finding yourself is preparing for future roles. Thus anticipatory socialization is important part of adolescent development. Anticipatory socialization refers to learning the rights, obligations, and expectations of a role in preparation for assuming that role at a future date. The last characteristic is the problems of suicide. When most people think of the causes and consequences of suicide, they think in terms of individuals. They see suicide as a personal act that results from psychological factors, such as depression or frustration. Sociologists acknowledge the suicide is more interested in the social factors that affect suicide rates. According to the sociologist view of suicide, variations in suicide rates can be understood by studying the structure of society. One good example from the film that ties all of these different characteristics together would be the Neil Perry incident. Neil wanted to perform and become an actor but his father thought that it was just a waste of time. He told his son that he worked hard and made many sacrifices so that Neil could go to Welton. This placed a ton of pressure on Neil. I also think Neil was afraid of his dad because his dad controlled most of his life. After all this build up of pressure and frustration from his father he couldnt control it and wound up taking his own life.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Chocolate is a product of the cacao bean which grows primarily in the tropical climates of West Africa and Latin America. The cacao bean is more commonly referred to as cocoa, so that is the term we will use throughout. Two West African countries, Ghana and the Ivory Coast, supply 75% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s cocoa market.  The cocoa they grow and harvest is sold to a variety of chocolate companies, including some of the largest in the world. In recent years, a handful of organizations and journalists have exposed the widespread use of child labor, and in some cases slavery, on West African cocoa farms. [2,3] Since that time, the industry has become increasingly secretive, making it difficult for reporters to not only access farms where human rights violations still occur, but to then disseminate this information to the public. For example, in 2004 a journalist was kidnapped and remains missing today.  More recently, three journalists from a daily newspaper were detained by government authorities in the Ivory Coast after publishing an article about government corruption related to the cocoa industry. We will write a custom essay sample on Slavery in the chocolate industry or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page  The farms of West Africa supply cocoa to international giants such as HersheyÃ¢â¬â¢s, Mars and Nestle Ã¢â¬â revealing the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s direct connection to child labor, human trafficking and slavery. chocolate_content1The Worst Forms of Child Labor In West Africa, cocoa is a commodity crop grown primarily for export. As the chocolate industry has grown over the years, so has the demand for cheap cocoa. Today, cocoa farmers barely make a living selling the beans and often resort to the use of child labor in order to keep their prices competitive. The children of West Africa are surrounded by intense poverty and most begin working at a young age to help support their family. Some children end up on the cocoa farms because they need work and they are told the pay is good. Other children are Ã¢â¬Å"soldÃ¢â¬ by their own relatives to traffickers or to the farm owners, and it has also been documented that traffickers often abduct the young boys from small villages in neighboring African countries, such as Burkina Faso and Mali.  Once they have been taken to the cocoa farms, the children may not see their families for years, if ever. When a child is delivered to the farm by a family member, that relative collects a sum of money either up front or at the end of an agreed duration of labor. Unfortunately, the relatives do not realize that the children will be exposed to a dangerous work environment and deprived of an education. Most of the children are between the ages of 12-16, but children as young as 7 have been filmed working on the farms.  Some only stay for a few months, while others end up working on the cocoa farms through adulthood. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s workday begins at sunrise and ends in the evening. The children climb the cocoa trees and cut the bean pods using a machete. These large, heavy, dangerous knives are the standard tools for children on the cocoa farms. Once the bean pods have been cut from the trees, the children pack the pods into large sacks and carry or drag them through the forest. Ã¢â¬Å"Some of the bags were taller than me. It took two people to put the bag on my head. And when you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurry, you were beaten. Ã¢â¬  Aly Diabate, former cocoa slave. Holding a single large pod in one hand, the children strike the pod with the machete and pry it open with the tip of the blade, exposing the cocoa beans. Each strike of the machete has the potential to severely cut a childÃ¢â¬â¢s fingers or hand. Virtually every child has scars on the hands, arms, legs or shoulders from accidents with the machete. In addition to the hazards of using a machete, children are also commonly exposed to agricultural chemicals on the West African cocoa farms.  Tropical regions such as the Ivory Coast consistently have to deal with prolific insect populations and choose to spray the pods with large amounts of industrial agricultural chemicals. Without protective equipment, children as young as 12 spray the pods with hazardous chemicals.  The farm owners often provide the children with the most inexpensive food available, such as corn paste and bananas.  In some cases, the children sleep on wooden planks in small windowless buildings with no access to clean water or sanitary bathrooms.  Again, they may live in these conditions for months or even years. Most of the children are unable to attend school while they are working, which is a violation of the International Labor Organization (ILO) child labor standards. [2,3,7] Depriving these children of an education has many short-term and long-term effects on their lives. The children of the cocoa farms have little hope of ever breaking the cycle of poverty. Slavery In recent years, cases have been documented in which children and adults on cocoa farms were retained against their will and forced to work.  While the term Ã¢â¬Å"slaveryÃ¢â¬ has a variety of historical contexts, slavery in the cocoa industry involves the same core human rights violations as other forms of slavery throughout the world. chocolate_content3Cases often involve acts of physical violence, such as being whipped for working slowly or trying to escape.  There have also been cases documented where children and adults were locked in at night to prevent them from escaping.  Former cocoa slave Aly Diabate told reporters: Ã¢â¬Å"The beatings were a part of my life. I had seen others who tried to escape. When they tried they were severely beaten. Ã¢â¬  Drissa, a recently freed cocoa slave who had never even tasted chocolate, experienced similar circumstances and when asked what he would tell the people who eat chocolate made from slave labor, he replied that the people enjoyed something that he suffered to make, adding: Ã¢â¬Å"When people eat chocolate they are eating my flesh. Ã¢â¬  Is Slave-free Chocolate Possible? To date, relatively little progress has been made in reducing and eliminating child labor and slavery in the cocoa industry of West Africa. The governments of Ghana and the Ivory Coast lack the resources needed to properly investigate and prosecute employers who violate international labor laws. At the very least, they have agreed to work to eliminate what the ILO calls Ã¢â¬Å"the worst forms of child labor. Ã¢â¬ These are defined as practices Ã¢â¬Å"likely to harm the health, safety or morals of childrenÃ¢â¬ and include the use of Ã¢â¬Å"hazardous toolsÃ¢â¬ and any work that Ã¢â¬Å"interferes with schooling. Ã¢â¬  Currently, the vast majority of children on West African cocoa farms endure Ã¢â¬Å"the worst forms of child laborÃ¢â¬ every day. Despite their role in contributing to child labor, slavery, and human trafficking, the chocolate industry has not taken significant steps to remedy the problem. A series of alliances and oversight boards may create good public relations, but cloud the fact that the industry has the power to end the use of child labor and slave labor by paying cocoa farmers a living wage for their product. The chocolate industry is also being called upon to develop and financially support programs to rescue and rehabilitate children who have been sold to cocoa farms. To date, the industry has not committed to developing such a program.  chocolate_content2Are the Labels on Chocolate Meaningful? Aside from large-scale production in West Africa, a significant amount of cocoa is also grown in Latin America. This is where the majority of organic cocoa originates.  At this time, child labor and/or slave labor have not been documented on these cocoa farms. While it remains possible that some Latin American farms may employ these practices, it is unlikely and certainly not widespread as is the case in West Africa. The truth is that consumers today have no sure way of knowing if the chocolate they are buying involved the use of child labor or slave labor. There are many different labels on chocolate bars today, such as Fair Trade Certified, however, no single label can guarantee that the chocolate was made without the use of exploitive labor. In 2010, the founders of the Fair Trade Certification process had to suspend several of their West African suppliers due to evidence that they were using child labor.  Multiple government and NGO programs have been developed, attempting to address the root causes of Ã¢â¬Å"the worst forms of child laborÃ¢â¬ and slavery in West Africa. However, the success of these efforts will depend greatly on the genuine support or lack thereof from the chocolate industry over the coming years. Recommendations It is important to offer ways in which people can make decisions to do their best to not contribute to injustices and cruelties involved in the food industry. This issue is a very difficult one to fully access as the most serious abuses are taking place across the world. However, that does not mean our responsibility is diminished since chocolate is indeed a luxury (though some might feel differently) and not a necessity like fruits and vegetables. Taking all of this into consideration and looking at the research that is available, at this time F. E. P. recommends that people do not buy any chocolate sourced from areas in West African where child slavery is the most pervasive. Questions : 1. What are the systemic, corporate and individual ethical issues raised by this case? 2. In your view, is the kind of child slavery discussed in this case absolutely wrong nomatter what, or is it only relatively wrong, i. e. , if one happens to live in a society (likeours) that disapproves of slavery? 3. Who shares in the moral responsibility for the slavery occurring in the chocolateindustry: African farmers? African governments? American chocolate companies likeHershey, Mars, Nestle and Kraft foods? Distributors like Archer Daniels Midland Co. ,Barry Callebaut, and Cargill Inc? Consumers like you and I who know about thesituation but continue to purchase tainted chocolate?
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
The African Berbers The Berbers, or Berber, has a number of meanings, including a language, a culture, a location, and a group of people: most prominently it is the collective term used for dozens of tribes of pastoralists, indigenous people who herd sheep and goats and live in northwest Africa today.Ã Despite this simple description, Berber ancient history is truly complex. Who Are the Berbers? In general, modern scholars believe that the Berber people are descendants of the original colonizers of North Africa. The Berber way of life was established at least 10,000 years ago as Neolithic Caspians. Continuities in material culture suggest that the people living along the coasts of the Maghreb 10,000 years ago simply added domestic sheep and goats in when they became available, so the odds are theyve been living in northwest Africa for much longer. Modern Berber social structure is tribal, with male leaders over groups practicing sedentary agriculture. They are also fiercely successful tradersÃ and were the first to open the commercial routes between Western Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, at locations such as Essouk-Tadmakka in Mali. The ancient history of the Berbers is by no means as tidy. Ancient History of Berbers The earliest historical references to people known as Berbers are from Greek and Roman sources. The unnamed first century AD sailor/adventurer who wrote the Periplus of the Erythrian Sea describes a region called Barbaria, located south of the city of Berekike on the Red Sea coast of east Africa. The first century AD Roman geographer Ptolemy (90-168 AD) also knew of the Barbarians, located on the Barbarian bay, which led to the city of Rhapta, their main city. Arabic sources for the Berber include the sixth-century poet Imru al-Qays who mentions horse-riding Barbars in one of his poems, and Adi bin Zayd (d. 587) who mentions the Berber in the same line with the eastern African state of Axum (al-Yasum). The 9th-century Arabic historian Ibn Abd al-Hakam (d. 871) mentions a Barbar market in al-Fustat. Berbers in Northwest Africa Today, of course, Berbers are associated with people indigenous to northwest Africa, not east Africa. One possible situation is that the northwestern Berbers were not the eastern Barbars at all, but instead were the people the Romans called Moors (Mauri or Maurus). Some historians call any group living in northwest Africa Berbers, to refer to the people who were conquered by Arabs, Byzantines, Vandals, Romans, and Phoenicians, in reverse chronological order. Rouighi (2011) has an interesting idea that the Arabs created the term Berber, borrowing it from the east African Barbars during the Arab Conquest, their expansion of the Islamic empire into North Africa and the Iberian peninsula. The imperialist Umayyad caliphate, says Rouighi, used the term Berber to group the people living nomadic pastoralist lifestyle in northwestern Africa, about the time they conscripted them into their colonizing army. The Arab Conquests Shortly after the establishment of the Islamic settlements at Mecca and Medina in the 7th century AD, the Muslims began expanding their empire. Damascus was captured from the Byzantine Empire in 635 and by, 651, Muslims controlled all of Persia. Alexandria in Egypt was captured in 641. The Arab conquest of North Africa began between 642-645Ã when general Amr ibn el-Aasi based in Egypt led his armies westward. The army quickly took Barqa, Tripoli, and Sabratha, establishing a military outpost for further successes in the Maghreb of coastal northwestern Africa. The first northwestern African capital was at al-Qayrawan. By the 8th century, the Arabs had kicked the Byzantines completely out of Ifriqiya (Tunisia) and more or less controlled the region. The Umayyad Arabs reached the shores of the Atlantic in the first decade of the 8th century and then captured Tangier. The Umayyads made Maghrib a single province including all of northwestern Africa. In 711, the Umayyad governor of Tangier, Musa Ibn Nusayr, crossed the Mediterranean Sea into Iberia with an army made up mostly of ethnic Berber people. Arabic raids pushed far into the northern regions and created the Arabic Al-Andalus (Andalusian Spain). The Great Berber Revolt By the 730s, the northwestern African army in Iberia challenged Umayyad rules, leading to the Great Berber Revolt of 740 AD against the governors of Cordoba. A Syrian general named Balj ib Bishr al-Qushayri ruled Andalusia in 742, and after the Umayyads fell to the Abbasid caliphate, the massive orientalization of the region began in 822 with the ascent of Abd ar-Rahman II to the role of Emir of Cordoba. Enclaves of Berber tribes from Northwest Africa in Iberia today include the Sanhaja tribe in the rural parts of the Algarve (southern Portugal), and the Masmuda tribe in the Tagus and Sado river estuaries with their capital at Santarem. If Rouighi is correct, then the history of the Arab Conquest includes the creation of a Berber ethnos from the allied but not previously related groups of northwestern Africa. Nonetheless, that cultural ethnicity is a reality today. Ksar: Berber Collective Residences House types used by modern Berbers include everything from movable tents to cliff and cave dwellings, but a truly distinctive form of building found in sub-Saharan Africa and attributed to Berbers is the ksar (plural ksour). Ksour are elegant, fortified villages made completely with mud brick. Ksour have high walls, orthogonal streets, a single gate and a profusion of towers. The communities are built next to oases, but to preserve as much tillable farmland as possible they soar upward. The surrounding walls are 6-15 meters (20-50 feet) high and buttressed along the length and at the corners by even taller towers of a distinctive tapering form. The narrow streets are canyon-like; the mosque, bathhouse, and a small public plaza are situated close to the single gate which often faces east. Inside the ksar there is very little ground-level space, but the structures still permit high densities in the high rise stories. They provide a defensible perimeter, and a cooler micro-climate produced by low surface to volume ratios. The individual roof terraces provide space, light, and a panoramic view of the neighborhood via a patchwork of raised platforms 9 m (30 ft) or more above the surrounding terrain. Sources Curtis WJR. 1983. Type and Variation: Berber Collective Dwellings of the Northwestern Sahara. Muqarnas 1:181-209.Detry C, Bicho N, Fernandes H, and Fernandes C. 2011. The Emirate of CÃ ³rdoba (756Ã¢â¬â929 AD) and the introduction of the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) in Iberia: the remains from Muge, Portugal. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(12):3518-3523.Frigi S, Cherni L, Fadhlaoui-Zid K, and Benammar-Elgaaied A. 2010. Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in Tunisian Berber Populations. Human Biology 82(4):367-384.Goodchild RG. 1967. Byzantines, Berbers and Arabs in 7th-century Libya. Antiquity 41(162):115-124.Hilton-Simpson MW. 1927. Algerian Hill-forts of today. Antiquity 1(4):389-401.Keita SOY. 2010. Biocultural Emergence of the Amazigh (Berbers) in Africa: Comment on Frigi et al (2010). Human Biology 82(4):385-393.Nixon S, Murray M, and Fuller D. 2011. Plant use at an early Islamic merchant town in the West African Sahel: the archaeobotany of E ssouk-Tadmakka (Mali). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 20(3):223-239. Rouighi R. 2011. The Berbers of the Arabs. Studia Islamica 106(1):49-76.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Twelve Non-Negotiable Elements of Force in Writing Twelve Non-Negotiable Elements of Force in Writing Twelve Non-Negotiable Elements of Force in Writing By Guest Author This is a guest post by Arthur Plotnik. ALL WE WRITERS CRAVE is to charge into the resistant, overloaded brain of a reader and shoot forked lightning through every last dendrite. Why else, if not to achieve high-voltage impact, do we push our own synapses into the red zone night after night, year after year? We are talking force herethe force that gets writing devoured, felt, remembered and published. Lacking it, the worlds most crafted content fizzles at the first neuron . Force in writing neednt always be nuclear-strength, any more than nonverbal cues have to be violent or clangorous to seize attention. Think of a despairing glance that pierces the heart, or a sound-squelching image like Scott Spencers botanical silence. But to overcome a readers natural resistance to static, sameness, and irrelevance, written words must somehow deliver the Godfather imperative: This is a message you cannot refuse. The ways of such force are legion, ranging from over-the-top exaggeration to sly understatement. Classical rhetoricians described these techniques by the hundreds. Writing programs pound away at a standard few, such as amped-up verbs and pared-down verbiage. I would include these among the knee-breakers Ive found most persuasive in overcoming reader resistance. Here I offer you an even dozen. You cannot refuse them: I know where you writers live. 1. Specificity. Why say she ordered an appetizer when you can pucker the senses with pickled herring or giant shrimp in Tylers ketchup sauce? We experience life in particulars, and theynot generalities jolt our memories and feelings. Name the telling things and actions as specifically as you can, but dont dilute their force by specifying everything. 2. Supercharged verbs. Every writer knows this techniqueshe savaged her steak rather than she ate the steak hungrily. Find or create forceful verbs; rewrite to be and to have sentences with action verbs. But writers beware: Overuse of forceful but trendy verbs (she rocked a bikini) and the huffing of too many power verbs per passage become transparently bush. 3. High performance modifiers. Like most words, adverbs and adjectives have personalities: some are kickass powerful, others are totally lame hangers-on. Unfortunately, the lamest ones have given the whole class a bad name. But robust terms like venal, venomous, strident, radiant, rousing, meteoric can be the driving force of a passage. Contrary to myth, even No-Adjective Ernest Hemingway used evocative modifiersif sparinglyto trigger response. ( . . . the sleigh-smoothed, urine-yellowed road; . . . three of the big birds squatted obscenely.) Pull your listless modifiers and plug in high-performance ones where force counts. 4. Fresh intensifiers. Drop such overused, now-forceless intensifiers as great, incredible, awesome, and amazing from your writing unless you can recharge them, as in skull-spinningly great or fall-to-your-knees awesome. Look for or create Grade-A Intensifying Adverbs, the kind that give fresh emphasis to commonplace adjectives: concussively stupid, sublimely stupid, weapons-grade stupid. 5. Sound words. Whomp. Whap. Nuzzle. Guzzle. Words imitating sounds suggest the forces that make the sounds. Even quiet forcesmurmur of innumerable beesgrip the imagination when evoked by onomatopoeia, as the technique is called. Sounds make for resonance, whether as the THOOM! of graphic novels, the KABOOOOM of a climactic literary passage (Everything Is Illuminated, Jonathan Safran Foer), or the boom, boom of clogs amplifying a girls fears (The Lovely Bones, Alice Sebold). 6. Surprise images. Apt and unexpected images, as in metaphors, excite cerebral enzymes. He had the complexion of baba ghanoush.. His tongue darted into my mouth like a tadpole escaping from a jar. (Marisha Pessl, Special Topics in Calamity Physics). Anticipated imagery such as she blushed tomato-red excite nothing. 7. Nowness. Vogue terms and pop references carry the force of novelty, fashion, and immediacyfor about one week to a year, after which they become swiped-out. But used in their moment, especially in journalism, they can be party-starters of Bieberesque boldness. 8. Street beat. Capture the rhythm and soul of the street, and you gon be head of the situation, knowm sayin? Who isnt moved by echoes of street life in all its raw effusiveness and funky phrasing? Cant kill nothin and wont nothin die. Any street will doany ethnic. Theres a girl who keeps bumping into you. You say to her, Pero mi amor, ya. And she says, Ya yourself. (Junot DÃ az, The Cheaters guide to Love. ) The trick is to develop an ear for authenticity and an eye for fitwithin the overall tone and momentum of your narrative. 9. Big nature. Writers have always drawn on the energy of natural forcesthe violence of typhoons, the insistence of tides. Big nature makes for mighty figures of speech: Shes a Mount Saint Helens waiting to erupt. Theres an ozone hole in his thinking. But be creative; a maelstrom of clichÃ ©s lies in wait. 10. Tough talk / Irreverence. You talkin to me? Kiss off. Make a hole. Go take your shoes for a walk while you still got legs. To break through apathy, theres nothing like defiant expression armored with attitude, menace, slang and sometimes profanity. It can bear the force of insult, of dire consequence, of all that thrills as it threatens. The usual rules of execution apply: well timed and credible. 11. Understatement. Less can be overwhelmingly more when the immensity, the ironythe jokeis snapped together in the readers mind. When Mom says, Dont worry, its nothing, alarms go off. The not scantily endowed beauty sets hearts juddering. Lets take a little ride is not what you want to hear from Tony Soprano. 12. Torque through intensity. The ultimate force is an aggregate effectthe various elements winding the spring, torquing the intensity. It comes about via soul-jarring themes, characters in peril and on the edge, smoldering conflict, inflamed dialogue, manic introspection. It demands strategies and, yes, craft. My non-negotiable advice: go for it, element by element. Whatever the outcome, youll be a force to be reckoned with. Arthur Plotnik is an acclaimed editor and author whose eight books include the newly revised and expanded The Elements of Expression: Putting Thoughts Into Words (2012) and the recent Better Than Great: A Plenitudinous Compendium of Wallopingly Fresh Superlatives (2011). He lives in Chicago. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Idioms About Numbers"Owing to" vs "Due to"Proverb vs. Adage
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Negotiation - Essay Example The negotiating team from the side of the management took a tough stance that the management cannot afford to extend this facility anymore. The union leaders were also not willing to forfeit this facility. If mutually acceptable solution was not found, the union leaders warned about the possibility of direct action, non-co-operation, work-to-rule, sit-in strikes, going on mass causal leave, and finally an indefinite strike. This situation was comparable to the one envisaged by William L. Ury in his book Ã¢â¬Å"Getting Past NoÃ¢â¬ and he writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Your goal may be to reach mutually satisfactory agreement, but you may find the other side not at all interested.Ã¢â¬ (9) All reasoning failed, all efforts for dispute resolutions came to a naught, and the management team used all the techniques related to fundamentals of negotiations. Even after three hours of marathon discussions, nothing tangible was achieved by both the sides. The management team appealed for the reasoned co-operation by the employees, as no institution can run with losses on an ongoing basis. Who will suffer if the organization declares lockout? The chances of getting alternative employment are dim in the foreseeable future. At this juncture the meeting was adjourned for the day as both sides wished to consult their respective teams. The union leaders made one point clear. Under no circumstances they will agree for abolishing the existing facility totally. Both the sides must have pondered over the issues seriously.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
An Economist's Account of the Existence of Moral hazard in the healthcare sector, and describe the mechanisms necessary to tac - Essay Example However, it is argued that the existence of the excessive utilization of these systems is due to the absence of a financial barrier to control the demand, and presence of financial arrangements on the supply side, which enables providers to supply wasteful amounts. Generally, unregulated, competitive markets result in private health insurance, which contributes to the concept of more insurance, which helps reduce health risks, but at the same time, increases demand and cost. In this regard, Nyman (2003) argued that most economists view the idea of controlling the supply side as a possible way of alleviating this problem. With such deliberations, it has been difficult for both the policy makers and economists to measure the level of demand and supply considered ideal in the market. In light with this, initiatives have been formulated in order to counteract moral hazard. Consumer moral hazards counter policies In order for policies to respond to consumer moral hazards, various issues h ave to be put into consideration without necessarily focusing on financial ones. The use of primary-care doctors as the gateway to preventing overuse of hospital services has been endorsed by many high income countries (Culyer and Newhouse 2000). On the other hand, the same modality has been endorsed by lower income countries by way of using bare-foot doctors. Nevertheless, numerous measures have been designed to counteract consumer moral hazards. Co-payments Co-payments have been utilized by a number of countries to exert some financial burden on the consumer in order to discourage unnecessary use of health care. This involves several schemes, which differ on the basis of the financial arrangement (Sexton 2010). Nevertheless, individual scheme is composed of flat rate change for each unit of service, a deductable akin to excess, and co-insurance. One of the most notable contributions of co-payments comes from the famous health insurance implement (HIE). In this particular experimen t, families that participated in the experiment were randomly assigned one of the different free-for-service insurance plans. The free for service plans involved different levels of cost sharing. Covered expenses included most medical services. Another set of the plan involved free access to inpatient services. The outcome of the experiment indicated that utilization responds to amounts paid out of pocket. Per capita total expenses on the free recorded 45 percent higher than those on the plan with a 95 percent co-insurance, however, spending rates on the rest of plans was on average. On the other hand, outpatient expenses on the provided free plan recorded an increase of 67 percent higher than those on the 95 percent co-insurance plan. The findings from this experiment indicated that an increase in the user price will lead to a decrease in demand. In this regard, it is apparent that implementing charges would lead to doctors concentrating more on those who can afford to pay (Sexton 2010). However, the implication is that those more in need tends to have less access to services. This becomes the problem of the approach advocated by RAND study. This is arguably true because in aggravate, the figure of those more in need of service and able to pay is replaced by those less in need and unable to pay. The other important issue of concern is whether the response of demand for health care to adjustment in its prices is the same or different for several groups in society (Nyman 2003). It is also necessary to
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Christian Ethics in A Complex World Essay In 2002 the book entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Choosing the Good: Christian Ethics in A Complex WorldÃ¢â¬ was by Dennis Hollinger was published. It gives an overview of the Christian ethics in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s complicated world. It is indeed a precious and unique book that assesses the framework and perspective of Christian ethics in relation to social issues. The approach is designed to widen initial ideas about relations among different races, policies, human sexualities, economics and many more. The approach of the author is very unusual that made the book more likeable. Hollinger wanted to connect his beliefs to his readers in a way that he wanted to imply something in choosing to do what is good and right. In every social issue at hand there is always an equivalent step by step framework to be followed. The bookÃ¢â¬â¢s weakness are the lengthy statements that bores readers easily, It may mislead readers since comprehension may be hard to acquire. It would be better if the author wrote it in a direct to the point manner. There are cases presented in the book that aids readers how to carefully analyze a real life scenario. It would be better for people not to complicate things as it is better if problems are looked down easily. In general the book is awesome since it tackles about foundations of ethical theories. Hollinger outlines much of the essential data needed so that readers will understand the areas of pastoral care, Christian ethics and its interconnection with public policy. An overall generalization is also given to see what does the author wanted to imply in this beautiful book. There were also judgments and ethical commitments presented in the second chapter of the book. The issues involving postmodernity and modernity treatment s discussed. But this is the chapter that lacks focus because vague explanations were given on how the society operates in modernity but does not make t in academics. The enticing part is that third part of the book presents figures about history tht guides readers on deciding in this contemporary world. A survey of recent Christian Ethics by Edward LeRoy is part of the book for readers to see an accurate statistics of the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion. Biblical ethics is also presented that shows a deeper connection of choosing to do the good things in life. The best reference is still the Holy Scriptures. Talking about culture and its relation to faith is also presented by Hollinger in this book. He cited examples like the delineation of Christ and Culture by Niebuhr and how the church is placed in the center of a more organized society. Christ should still stand up amidst the complexities of things I every culture. As the author concludes the book Ã¢â¬Å"the moral task before the Christian church today is immense. But God has called us, as he called Esther long ago in Persia, to be a divine presence for such a time as thisÃ¢â¬ (Hollinger, 2002). For good to succeed it is our duty to devote our moral commitments against the complex world. It is in humility that people can find goodness and it is God who is the true foundation of everything we do (Hollinger, 2002, p. 272). The book is designed to let readers be aware that choosing good should incorporate a broad and deep understanding of the word goodness. Having reflections on the book made it easier for readers to understand what he is trying to point out. It is recommended to discuss a book like this in the classroom scenario so that all students ma practice the ethics of goodness inside the classroom and spread it outside as they grow. References: Hollinger, D. (2002). Choosing The Good: Christian Ethics in A Complex World. USA: Baker Academic
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Social Security Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Social Security is a public program designed to provide income and services to individuals in the event of retirement, sickness, disability, death, or unemployment. In the United States, the word social security refers to the programs established in 1935 under the Social Security Act. Societies throughout history have devised ways to support people who cannot support themselves. In 1937 the government began issuing Social Security identification cards to all citizens. Each card had a unique number that the government used to keep track of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings and the taxes collected from those earnings that went to finance Social Security benefits. The Social Security Act is an act in which taxes would be deducted from workers earnings to finance both old age benefits and unemployment compensation. The government began collecting Social Security taxes in 1937 and putting them in a trust fund. It was a fund that the government could use to pay benefits, cover administrative costs, and invest in securities to earn interest. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Since 1935, the U.S. government has modified the Social Security Act more than 20 times by major amendments. One of the first amendments, passed in 1939, added benefit support for the family members of retired workers and for survivors of deceased workers. In 1956, under President Dwight Eisenhower, the U.S. Congress added monthly benefits for disabled workers to Social Security. Along with the amendment of 1939 for benefits to family members and survivors, this new amendment created the form of Social Security that still exists today, which is known as Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance (OASDI). In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson signed an amendment that created Medicare. Medicare is a program that provides hospital insurance to the elderly, along with supplementary medical insurance for other medical costs. During the 1970s and 1980s, concern arose about the financial integrity of the Social Security trust funds. The balance was shifting between money co ming in from taxes and benefits going out of the funds. The administration of President Ronald Reagan passed a set of major legislative changes to Social Security laws in 1983. These changes included the cancellation and, in some cases, taxation of certain benefits. The Congress also improvised a slight ... ...onesty, we will succeed. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I am really against the change of the Social Security system because it is going to dismantle the system and it is going to take very hard work to change the system the way he wants it to be. The Social Security system will face a crisis. The plans that President Bush plans to go about will amount to a huge cost. The United States is already in debt, so why make it more in debt? Sources http://www.governmentguide.com/govsite.adp?bread=*Main&url=http%3A//www.governmentguide.com/ams/clickThruRedirect.adp%3F55076483%2C16920155%2Chttp%3A//www.ssa.gov/history/history.html http://www.socialsecurityreform.org/history/index.cfm http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/gahff/html/ff_168800_socialsecuri.htm http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/2002-2003/americas/united_states.html http://www.disabilityresources.org/SS.html http://www.foreignborn.com/self-help/social_sec/6programs.htm http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/unemployment_compensation.html http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/medicare.html http://www.newsbatch.com/socialsecurity.htm http://www.swem.wm.edu/GOVDOC/welfare.html Social Security Essays -- essays research papers Social Security Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Social Security is a public program designed to provide income and services to individuals in the event of retirement, sickness, disability, death, or unemployment. In the United States, the word social security refers to the programs established in 1935 under the Social Security Act. Societies throughout history have devised ways to support people who cannot support themselves. In 1937 the government began issuing Social Security identification cards to all citizens. Each card had a unique number that the government used to keep track of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings and the taxes collected from those earnings that went to finance Social Security benefits. The Social Security Act is an act in which taxes would be deducted from workers earnings to finance both old age benefits and unemployment compensation. The government began collecting Social Security taxes in 1937 and putting them in a trust fund. It was a fund that the government could use to pay benefits, cover administrative costs, and invest in securities to earn interest. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Since 1935, the U.S. government has modified the Social Security Act more than 20 times by major amendments. One of the first amendments, passed in 1939, added benefit support for the family members of retired workers and for survivors of deceased workers. In 1956, under President Dwight Eisenhower, the U.S. Congress added monthly benefits for disabled workers to Social Security. Along with the amendment of 1939 for benefits to family members and survivors, this new amendment created the form of Social Security that still exists today, which is known as Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance (OASDI). In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson signed an amendment that created Medicare. Medicare is a program that provides hospital insurance to the elderly, along with supplementary medical insurance for other medical costs. During the 1970s and 1980s, concern arose about the financial integrity of the Social Security trust funds. The balance was shifting between money co ming in from taxes and benefits going out of the funds. The administration of President Ronald Reagan passed a set of major legislative changes to Social Security laws in 1983. These changes included the cancellation and, in some cases, taxation of certain benefits. The Congress also improvised a slight ... ...onesty, we will succeed. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I am really against the change of the Social Security system because it is going to dismantle the system and it is going to take very hard work to change the system the way he wants it to be. The Social Security system will face a crisis. The plans that President Bush plans to go about will amount to a huge cost. The United States is already in debt, so why make it more in debt? Sources http://www.governmentguide.com/govsite.adp?bread=*Main&url=http%3A//www.governmentguide.com/ams/clickThruRedirect.adp%3F55076483%2C16920155%2Chttp%3A//www.ssa.gov/history/history.html http://www.socialsecurityreform.org/history/index.cfm http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/gahff/html/ff_168800_socialsecuri.htm http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/2002-2003/americas/united_states.html http://www.disabilityresources.org/SS.html http://www.foreignborn.com/self-help/social_sec/6programs.htm http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/unemployment_compensation.html http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/medicare.html http://www.newsbatch.com/socialsecurity.htm http://www.swem.wm.edu/GOVDOC/welfare.html
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Throughout history, women have made up a sort of Ã¢â¬Å"minorityÃ¢â¬ in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s many societies. They have been looked upon as property to husbands and fathers. Their place was deemed the maleÃ¢â¬â¢s home. Women were to provide services to men, ranging from carrying an heir (hopefully a male) to providing a clean home and cooked meals. Women in high-income nations still continue to face challenges because of their gender, and those in low-income nations often remain thought of as property.From a symbolic interactionist perspective, gender is an issue that is based on many underlying historical concepts, and it continues to contribute to world-wide poverty. As symbolic interactionists view social problems using a microlevel perspective, they see that gender roles are learned behaviors taught by individual socializing agents in each society. Parents immediately begin teaching their children what it is to be a male or female in how they treat their sons and daughters. For example, parents are more likely to play rough with their sons, who are often dressed in clothes pertaining to superheroes.This teaches the young male that strength, athletic ability, and courage are Ã¢â¬Å"desirable. Ã¢â¬ He might then try to epitomize this throughout his lifetime. On the other side, a daughter is often dressed in frilly outfits depicting maidens in distress (Cinderella, for example), and they are usually kept inside from getting dirty to learn homemaking skills. Throughout their lifetime, then, they will remember what it is to be a female according to their parents. Thus, from birth, children are subjected to differing gender roles within a society.Symbolic interactionists also see that gender roles could be taught with something as seemingly insignificant as communication. Linguistic sexism, which is patterns of communication that degrade a particular sex (usually female), is often cited as employing the dominance of one gender to perpetuate traditional gende r roles. For example, the English word Ã¢â¬Å"mankindÃ¢â¬ includes every human being on Earth, whether male or female, even though it conjures up the idea of a group of males. Also, if a female enters a medical profession, she is often referred to as a Ã¢â¬Å"female doctorÃ¢â¬ to avoid confusion in this traditionally male-dominated job.Even nonverbal communication can perpetuate dominance. A female that always touches a male at her prerogative in public is easily viewed as the dominant figure within the relationship. Eye contact can be used to stress the dominance of one over another (as in animals, when a Ã¢â¬Å"stare downÃ¢â¬ has been won, the winner has taken dominance). As communication is passed from parent to child in every generation, until it changes, it will perpetuate inequality. Though womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles in the world are changing rapidly in high-income nations, many still face problems regarding poverty through all sociological perspectives.Not all women will g row up to become doctors and lawyers, as these fields are still dominated by males. According to the glass ceiling idea, women can only go so far in their dominated jobs. However, the glass elevator idea lifts men to reach even higher than women in female-dominated jobs, such as nursing. Men are typically paid more and regarded as being able to handle more complicated problems (so they are well-suited to move up in companies and manage others). Therefore, women without husbands to help them may not be able to provide the usual income it would take for her to live above the poverty level.This is restrictive to single mothers who are trying to provide for themselves as well as their children. If they cannot move up in their job, they will not be able to provide money for food, housing, child care during her work hours, and other basic necessities (such as clothes for her children). She may get help from the government, but as soon as she gets above a certain income level (which is sti ll on the poverty line), she is cut off of federal aid. It will then take her months to get back into the system, even though she has already been in it before.This creates a cycle of poverty for the woman and her children, who, growing up in poverty, will be more likely to be stuck in poverty throughout their lifetimes. Therefore, the inequality of women in the economy and government as compared to men burdens them in different ways. Since the government does not bother to consider these differences when coming up with plans of action, poverty is still perpetuated. However, the government has tried to cut back on poverty by giving states incentives (additional funds) for having less poverty. This legislation is known as B. O. B. nd encourages states to solve the poverty problem from its roots to wipe it out. Resolutions have also been introduced to reinforce less discrimination against women. These macrolevel answers have little to do with the problem on the microlevel, which has y et to be solved. Language and gestures are hard to change, even over generations and generations. Traditions ebb and flow on their own with regards to advancing technology, ideas, and beliefs. Therefore, from a symbolic interactionist perspective, there is not yet a true solution to the problems of gender inequality and resulting poverty.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Not much has been written about Korea, or of its people, their deeds and heroism.Ã However, one work displayed Korean character though a biography of an ordinary missionary who turned out to be a significant personality in the history of Korea and its transformation.The book, Ã¢â¬Å"A Modern Pioneer in Korea:Ã The Life Story of Henry G.Ã Appenzeller by William Griffis, is yet another biography that showcases heroism.Ã The book is about sacrifice and giving up something for other people.Ã In his story, Henry showed that it does not take much to be able to help other people and to become a hero for ordinary people.Ã For example, it does not take to be rich, or to be a prominent person in order to affect other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives.Griffis started his discussion by giving a background about Appenzeller and Korea.Ã In this way, the readers can recall and picture what Korea was and how Appenzeller affected the lives of the people and how he helped them change for the better.Henry Appenzeller was a missionary for the Methodist church in Korea.Ã As a missionary, he is able to save the lives of young people in Korea by giving them a new chance for education and serving as an inspiration for them.There are a number of instances by which Griffis was able to show that Appenzeller is a noble man.Ã First, he was able to preach and educate the people of Korea in six different languages.Ã He preached about righteousness without being hindered by the various barriers like language and culture.The book is a very inspiring record of Korean heroism, which is apart from the popular reputation of Korea being isolated from the world of heroism and humanity.Ã Ã Ã The author, Griffis, did an effective narration of what seemed to be the greatest achievements and contributions of Appenzeller in the modern Korea.What is good about his book is that Griffis was able to substantiate and provide concrete evidence for his claims pertaining to AppenzellerÃ¢ â¬â¢s heroism.Ã This is very important because as a biography, it should be based upon real experiences and real events in the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s life.As a missionary, Appenzeller was able to affect change for the Korean people by incorporating prayers in their lives.Ã It is never denied that Korea was one of the most mythical and mysterious nations in the Asian region, very much in touched with its culture and tradition.Ã This, to my mind is one of the primary reasons why KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s growth was stagnated.Ã Fortunately, the modern Korea has learned to be social and unashamed of its self and unafraid to consider changes.Figuratively speaking, the work is full of picturesque words used effectively to show greatness.Ã The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s approach gave the biography a poetic appeal so that unlike any other biography, the work seems to have been creatively written as a real literary masterpiece.It can also be observed that as much as the book is also about AppenzellerÃ¢ â¬â¢s missionary works, much have been mentioned about the Gods, and religion.Ã Although at one point, it may seem unnecessary, the approach nevertheless has been effective in relating the role of religion in KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation and in explaining the behavior of the poe0ple, particularly of Henry Appenzeller.In sum, the book is another archaic inspiration and recognition of Korean heroism that until today contributes to the continuous improvement of Korea and its people.Work CitedGriffis, William. A Modern Pioneer in Korea:Ã The Life Story of Hernry G.Ã Appenzeller.Ã New York: Fleming H.Ã Revell, 1912.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Police work is dangerous. Sometimes police put in situations that excessive force is needed. But, because some officers use these extreme measures in situations when it is not, police brutality should be addressed. The use of excessive force may or may not be large problem, but it should be looked into by both the police and the public. For those people who feel racism is not a factor in causing the use of excessive force, here is a startling fact. In Tampa Bay, Florida, five men died while in the custody of the Tampa Bay police Department (C.C. 27). The thing is, the Tampa Bay Police Department is made up of mostly white officers, but of the five men who died, none where white. Four of the five men that died where African Americans, and the other man was a Mexican National. If the incident in Tampa Bay does not show a person racism, this event might. In New York City, an average of seven Latin Americans were killed a year between 1986 to 1989, but in 1990, that number increased greatly. In that year, twenty-three Latin Americans were killed by police gunfire. When asked how he felt about racism being involved in police brutality, Yussuf Naimkly of the University of Regina commented: "Excessive police force against blacks has always been tolerated, because as a formally enslaved minority African Americans are trapped in a cultural context specifically designed to inhibit their development and thus minimize their threat to white hegemony" (C.C. 72) Executive Director of Police Misconduct Lawyers Referral Service Karol Heppe commented, Ã¢â¬Å"Brutality against minorities is a daily occurrence in Los Angeles,Ã¢â¬ she says. Ã¢â¬Å"The difference this time is someone videotaped it (C.C. 36). Another shocking incident of police brutality occurred in Reynoldsberg, Ohio. A group of offices named themselves Ã¢â¬Å"S.N.A.T.Ã¢â¬ squad. This acronym stood for Ã¢â¬Å"Special Nigger Arrest TeamÃ¢â¬ and they made it a... Free Essays on Police Brutality And Is Prevelence In Today's Society Free Essays on Police Brutality And Is Prevelence In Today's Society Police work is dangerous. Sometimes police put in situations that excessive force is needed. But, because some officers use these extreme measures in situations when it is not, police brutality should be addressed. The use of excessive force may or may not be large problem, but it should be looked into by both the police and the public. For those people who feel racism is not a factor in causing the use of excessive force, here is a startling fact. In Tampa Bay, Florida, five men died while in the custody of the Tampa Bay police Department (C.C. 27). The thing is, the Tampa Bay Police Department is made up of mostly white officers, but of the five men who died, none where white. Four of the five men that died where African Americans, and the other man was a Mexican National. If the incident in Tampa Bay does not show a person racism, this event might. In New York City, an average of seven Latin Americans were killed a year between 1986 to 1989, but in 1990, that number increased greatly. In that year, twenty-three Latin Americans were killed by police gunfire. When asked how he felt about racism being involved in police brutality, Yussuf Naimkly of the University of Regina commented: "Excessive police force against blacks has always been tolerated, because as a formally enslaved minority African Americans are trapped in a cultural context specifically designed to inhibit their development and thus minimize their threat to white hegemony" (C.C. 72) Executive Director of Police Misconduct Lawyers Referral Service Karol Heppe commented, Ã¢â¬Å"Brutality against minorities is a daily occurrence in Los Angeles,Ã¢â¬ she says. Ã¢â¬Å"The difference this time is someone videotaped it (C.C. 36). Another shocking incident of police brutality occurred in Reynoldsberg, Ohio. A group of offices named themselves Ã¢â¬Å"S.N.A.T.Ã¢â¬ squad. This acronym stood for Ã¢â¬Å"Special Nigger Arrest TeamÃ¢â¬ and they made it a...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Hideki Tojo On December 23, 1948, the United States executed a frail, bespectacled man of almost 64 years. Ã The prisoner, Hideki Tojo, had been convicted of war crimes by the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, and he would be the highest-ranking officer from Japan to be executed. Ã To his dying day, Tojo maintained that The Greater East Asia War was justified and righteous. Ã However, he did apologize for the atrocities commited by Japanese troops during the Second World War. Ã Who was Hideki Tojo? Hideki Tojo (December 30, 1884 - December 23, 1948) was a leading figure of the Japanese government as a general of the Imperial Japanese Army, leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and 27th Prime Minister of Japan from October 17, 1941 to July 22, 1944.Ã It was Tojo who, as Prime Minister, was responsible for ordering the attack on Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941. The day after the attack, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan, officially bringing theÃ United States into World War II. Ã Ã Hideki Tojo was born in 1884 to a military family ofÃ samuraiÃ descent. His father was one of the first generation of military men since the Imperial Japanese Army had replacedÃ samurai warriors after the Meiji Restoration. Ã Tojo graduated with honors from the army war college in 1915 and quickly climbed the militaryÃ ranks. He was known within the army as Razor Tojo for his bureaucratic efficiency,Ã strict attention to detail, and unwavering adherence to protocol. He was extremely loyal to the Japanese nation and the army, and in his rise to leadership within Japans military and government he became a symbol for Japans militarism and parochialism. With his unique appearance of close-cropped hair, mustache, and round eyeglasses he became the caricature by Allied propagandists of Japans military dictatorship during the Pacific war.Ã At the end of World War II, Tojo was arrested, tried, sentenced to death for war crimes, and hanged. Early Military Career In 1935, Tojo assumed command of the Kwangtung Armys Kempetai or military police force in Manchuria. Ã The Kempetai was not an ordinary military police command - it functioned more like a secret police, such as the Gestapo or the Stassi. In 1937, Tojo was promoted once more to Chief of Staff of the Kwangtung Army. July of that year saw his only actual combat experience, when he led a brigade into Inner Mongolia. The Japanese defeated Chinese Nationalist and Mongolian forces, and established a puppet state called the Mongol United Autonomous Government. By 1938, Hideki Tojo was recalled to Toyko to serve as army vice minister in the Emperors Cabinet. Ã In July of 1940, he was promoted to army minister in the second Fumimaroe Konoe government. Ã In that role, Tojo advocated an alliance with Nazi Germany, and also with Fascist Italy. Meanwhile relations with the United States worsened as Japanese troops moved south into Indochina. Although Konoe considered negotiations with the United States, Tojo advocated against them, espousing war unless the United States withdrew its embargo on all exports to Japan. Ã Konoe disagreed, and resigned.Ã Prime Minister of Japan Without giving up his post of army minister, Tojo was made the prime minister of Japan in October 1941. Ã At different points during World War II, he would also serve as the minister of home affairs, education, munitions, foreign affairs, and commerce and industry. Ã In December of 1941, Prime Minister Tojo gave the green light to a plan for simultaneous attacks on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; Thailand; British Malaya; Singapore; Hong Kong; Wake Island; Guam; and the Philippines. Ã Japans rapid success and lightning-fast Southern Expansion made Tojo immensely popular with the ordinary people. Although Tojo had public support, was hungry for power, and was adept at gathering the reins into his own hands, he never was able to establish a true fascist dictatorship like those of his heros, Hitler and Mussolini. Ã The Japanese power structure, headed by the emperor-god Hirohito, prevented him from attaining complete control. Ã Even at the height of his influence, the court system, the navy, industry, and of course Emperor Hirohito himself remained outside of Tojos control. Ã In July of 1944, the tide of war had turned against Japan and against Hideki Tojo. Ã When Japan lost Saipan to the advancing Americans, the emperor forced Tojo out of power. Ã After the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945, and Japans surrender, Tojo knew that he would likely be arrested by the American Occupation authorities. Trial and Death As the Americans closed in, Tojo had a friendly doctor draw a large charcoal X on his chest to mark where his heart was. Ã He then went into a separate room and shot himself squarely through the mark. Ã Unfortunately for him, the bullet somehow missed his heart and went through his stomach instead. Ã When the Americans arrived to arrest him, they found him laying on a bed, bleeding profusely. Ã Im very sorry that it is taking me so long to die, he told them. Ã The Americans rushed him to emergency surgery, saving his life. Hideki Tojo was tried before the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for war crimes. Ã In his testimony, he took every opportunity to assert his own guilt, and claimed that the Emperor was blameless. Ã This was convenient for the Americans, who had already decided that they did not dare hang the Emperor for fear of a popular revolt. Ã Tojo was found guilty of seven counts of war crimes, and on November 12, 1948, he was sentenced to death by hanging. Tojo was hanged on December 23, 1948. Ã In his final statement, he asked the Americans to show mercy to the Japanese people, who had suffered devastating losses in the war, as well as the two atomic bombings. Ã Tojos ashes are divided between the Zoshigaya Cemetery in Tokyo and the controversial Yasukuni Shrine; he is one of fourteen class A war criminals enshrined there.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Jhon Locke second treatise - Essay Example While Locke presents a number of viable suggestions in regards to property ownership it is nevertheless to conduct a critical evaluation of the validity LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s postulations pertaining to property ownership and an assessment of the applicability of his arguments in modern property ownership. In LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s argument pertaining to property he argues that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body happens to be his own property and any work that it undertakes is thus seen to essentially be owned by it. Locke postulates that by mixing labor with the various available resources availed by nature essentially causes results in the removal of these natural resources from common ownership and makes these resources our very own. He points out that this is the premise that is granted for property ownership as provided for in the bible and is in line with AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s means of obtaining dominion over the entire earth and its creatures (Locke Sec. 36). LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the bible is seen to be an atte mpt to try and essentially justify his position on the general formula that was used in the acquisition of land. In my opinion this supposition as provided by Locke essentially makes sense as it is primarily through our own individual labor activity that we can be able to cause the various natural resources to obtain their innate true value. However in my opinion, I think that Locke did not take into careful consideration aspects such as communal labor that see individuals undertake a number of labor activities not for their own individual gain, but primarily for the benefit of the entire community. Locke also seem to overlook the fact that it is nowadays quite common for individuals to desire to own land not for their own mere self-gratification but primarily for ecological stewardship purposes where their attempts are mainly geared at the general conservation of nature. To some extent, LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s position can arguable seen to not be justifiable as although the original premise of land acquisition in which the entire world was according to Locke America and there was a lot of land which was seemingly unowned, and hence the acquisition of land by an individual did not in any way tend to infringe on another individualÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to acquire land as there was no evident scarcity of land to own (Locke Sec. 36), this supposition can be seen to not hold true in the modern day world as the rapid population increase that has been experienced around the world has caused there to be numerous persons across the world who despite their engagement in labor activities, still cannot be able to own any land or own any housing property. This is despite there being some individuals happen to own thousands of acres of land or various properties that remain vacant for very long stretches of time without having any human habitation. It is primarily in respect to this that I strongly support the argument that the current unequal possession of the earth has essentially be en imposed by most men by those that happen to be stronger than them. My current perception is that if all men were to be granted equal opportunity and resources, all men would desire to and eventually own land. Locke points out that money has been of great aid in the promotion of the unequal and disproportionate possession of the
Thursday, October 31, 2019
What are the causes of ethnic violenceDiscuss with reference to Yugoslavia as a case study - Essay Example However, the turning point of the unrest in this area was probably the ratification of the new constitution in 1974 which gave more autonomy to the individual republics that are part of the Yugoslavian jurisdiction (Devic, Ann (1998). According the new constitution, the republics have the option to declare its independence from the federation. Although this provision of the constitution is well-meaning and very democratic, this paved the way for people in the different republics in the Yugoslavian territory to seek independence and become a full-fledged nation on its own. The seed of nationalism is said to be planted by this provision of the constitution and spur the people from the republics to dream of becoming independent. The need to be independent by the republics became more apparent when the Yugoslavian President Josip Borz Tito died in the 1980s (Cairns E. and Roe M. (2003). The tension between the republics became more intense that June of 1991, Slovenia and Croatia decided that they want to become independent and severe their ties with the other federal republics (Cairns E. and Roe M. (2003). Later, in September of the same year, the republic of Macedonia made its intention to become independent while Bosnia and Herzegovina followed in March of 1992(Cairns E. and Roe M. (2003). Unfortunately, Serbia and Montenegro did not approve of the move of Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina to leave the federation. They however supported the idea of Slovenia leaving the federation. The assumption of Slobodan Milosevic in 1989 as president of Serbia, the largest and the most heavily populated republic in Yugoslav region brought the tension in the area to a higher level. In December 23, 1990, 88% of the voting populace in Serbia voted for independence (Spencer, Metta (1998). President Slobodan Milosevic also started his plan to unite the regions of Croatia, Bosnia and Serbia into a great Serbian republic
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Methods - Research Paper Example According to Zwass, electronic commerce is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the sharing of business information, maintaining of business relationships, and conducting of business transactions by means of telecommunications networksÃ¢â¬ . The electronic commerce activities are inter-organisational processes of market-based sell-buy relationships and collaboration, consumer oriented activities, and inter-organisational processes that support them (Zwass). The innovation diffusion theory by Rogers has been widely applied as a theoretical framework to analyse adoption of technology. The framework identified five factors which influence adoption of technology in organisations. These factors are relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability. Relative advantage is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedesÃ¢â¬ . Compatibility is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consisten t with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adoptersÃ¢â¬ . Complexity is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and useÃ¢â¬ . ... This study therefore seeks to identify the factors that influence adoption of e-commerce in organisations using RogersÃ¢â¬â¢ model. Research Questions 1. What is the effect of relative advantage on adoption of e-commerce? 2. Does compatibility affect adoption of e-commerce? 3. What is the effect of complexity on adoption of e-commerce? 4. Does trialability affect adoption of e-commerce? 5. What is the effect of observability on adoption of e-commerce? Research Objectives The objectives of this study are: 1. To examine the effect of relative advantage on adoption of e-commerce. 2. To determine the effect of compatibility on adoption of e-commerce. 3. To assess the effect of complexity on adoption of e-commerce. 4. To examine the effect of trialability on adoption of e-commerce. 5. To determine the effect of observability on adoption of e-commerce. Significance of the Study This study is very important to organisations in Saudi Arabia as well as other Arab countries. The results of t his study will be very valuable in informing the management of these retail stores on how a number of factors will influence adoption of e-commerce for those who wish to do so. The study is also important to government agencies in charge of policy-making decisions. The study will provide valuable recommendations on how regulation of e-commerce should be carried out based on the results on the adoption factors of e-commerce. The policy recommendations will therefore help come up with solutions that will address the challenges of e-commerce among retailers. Researchers will also find this study valuable source information as a reference material as well as act as a basis for
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Human Resources in Malaysia Question1 ii) Assuming that you are the Senior HR Manager in one of the manufacturing company, how the minimum retirement age act in Malaysia has any impact in your company and industry taking into consideration it advantages and disadvantages? As a Senior HR Manager, I do believe there is impact of the minimum retirement age act in company and industry as well. Implementation of the new minimum retirement age act could be beneficial to the company. Based on the survey done by the group Aon Hewitt (2011), 53% out of the 107 companies that participated in the survey thinks that they will lose their talented employees. Furthermore, some companies also worry that they could not find the replacement for their talented senior employees due to the lack of talents in the market (Aon Hewitt, 2011). According to Tung and Comeau (2012), company that offer job rotation for the senior workers could save the cost of hiring new employees. Some senior employees are talented, still productive, and have many experiences that the younger employees do not have. Senior employees can share their experiences and knowledge, lead, and guide the newly hired employees. This could also help the company to save the cost of hiring outside trainer to train their new employees. However, there are drawbacks towards the company for implementing the new Act. Some company would face cost structure disruption due to the Act as mentioned by the Malaysia Employers Federation (Aruna Rahim, 2012). The senior employees have higher payroll than those younger ones. Some company could not afford higher wages employees and hence would face the financial problem due to the Act. Furthermore, some senior employees might face some health problem as they age and this would increase the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s cost due to the medical bills (Tung Comeau, 2012). This would be a burden to the company especially those small-medium enterprises (SMEs). Besides the company, there are also some impacts of introducing the new retirement age act on industry field. According to Li (n.d.), delaying the retirement age from 55 to 60 can brings an impact on those fresh graduates or young employees. It is because the vacancies that were previously prepared for them which following the retirement of the older employees are delayed. He also stated that the pre-MRAA case of Sistem Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad had successfully argued in the Industrial Court on increasing the retirement age from 55 to 66 could cause frustration and stagnation of junior employees who failed to promote to the senior position as the senior staff only retires at the age of 60. Besides that, he also mentioned that the productivity of older employees may decline with age which lowers the performance of the organization. Some other disadvantages associated with older employees include inflexibility in executing tasks, unwilling to learn new knowledge, difficult in mainta ining up-to-date skills, and reluctance to take part in any training programs. Apart from that, Malaysian Employers Federation (MEF) Executive Director, Y. Bhg. Datuk Hj. Shamsuddin bin Bardan also claimed that the unemployment rate could rise from 3.7% to 4% or higher as the industry field is forced to subdue the loss in job openings as employee retires later (FreeMalaysiaToday, 2013). He said that the Malaysian job market is not well-prepared for the entering of new fresh graduates if the present employees do not leave the job market at the age of 55. In the other hand, new retirement age act can bring some long-term benefits (Chew, 2013). He proposed that by elongate five more productive years, the gross domestic product (GDP) of the national economy could be raised by extra 400 000 workers. He also said the government deficit can be reduced significantly as the workers working longer and contribute to the Employees Providence Fund (EPF) by continuing paying income tax. Last but not least, the contributions and taxes from the private sector can be reduced. This is because with the increase of revenue and surplus from the government, the income tax and other tax incentives from the private sector can be reduce. In a nutshell, the new retirement age act in Malaysia do give impacts on company and industry as well. Therefore, it is important for us to modify and minimize the negative impact so that it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t affect company, industry and country much. Question 2 a) Does Sally have a basis for claiming Ã¢â¬Å"hostile environmentÃ¢â¬ sexual harassment? How was she harmed? In our opinion, we think that Sally does have a basis for claiming Ã¢â¬Å"hostile environmentÃ¢â¬ sexual harassment. Based on Code of Practice on the Prevention and Eradication of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace which established by Ministry of Human Resources, Malaysia in 1999, sexual harassment means Ã¢â¬Å"any unwanted conduct of a sexual nature having the effect of verbal, non-verbal, visual, psychological or physical harassment: that might, on reasonable grounds, be perceived by the recipient as placing a condition of a sexual nature on her/his employment; or that might, on reasonable grounds, be perceived by the recipient as an offence or humiliation, or a threat to his/her well-being, but has no direct link to her/his employment. Based on The Code, sexual harassment of Sally case is fall on sexual annoyance, a sexually-related conduct that is offensive, hostile or intimidating to the recipient, but nonetheless has no direct link to any job benefit. In Sally case, the sexual harassment was fall into category of harassment by an employee against another employee. From the text above, the co-worker of Sally were whistles, leers, comments about her sexy physical body, one of the crew members whom name Al, even grabbed Sally and tried to kiss her. Sally was refuge what Al did on her. The action did by Al and co-worker were an unwanted conduct of a sexual nature having the effect of physical, verbal, non-verbal and visual which can be counted as a hostile environment sexual harassment. She was harmed due to the unsuccessful of resolving her sexual harassment problem by her supervisor, Chunk. She has been told to be calm. Apart from this, the co-worker isolates her and refuge to work with her. She develops an ulcer and used all her sick leave and being diagnosed having job-related stress and took 60 days of leave-of-absence. Her fiancÃ © also break their engagement because of peer pressure. Besides, she also failed to appeal regards on her sexual harassment case by both the union and management. b) If you were the union or Chunk, how would you investigate her grievance? If no witnesses supported SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s story, what would you conclude? Grievance is being defined as the Ã¢â¬Å"dissatisfaction between the employees and the employers involving the work and working environmentÃ¢â¬ (Zulkiflee Daud, Mohd Faizal Mohd Isa, Wan Shakizah Wan Mohd Nor, Zairani Zainol, 2013, p. 123). In terms of this context, Sally claimed that she was being sexually harassed by one of the crew member, Al, where he tried to grab her and kiss her when Sally was being sent out in truck with Al. However, Al denied in having any physical contact with Sally. SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s case is considered as individual grievance whereby formal stage grievance procedures will be taken to investigate this case. So, if I were the union or Chuck, I will initiate with the grievance procedure once I received the complaint lodged by Sally. But before that, I need to ensure that I understand thoroughly what have been written in the grievance/complaint form by Sally and to have a basic idea on SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s situation and why she lodged the complaint. Then, I will write an acknowledging receipt of the grievance statement and proposed some advises on the ways to handle the grievance to Sally within the 5 working days from the day the grievance are being received. Next, I would proposed for an investigation to be done onto SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s grievance by developing a separate complaint procedure that deals specifically with such a sexual harassment complaints as this is a very sensitive issue in an organization. In developing the complaint procedure, Sally would be protected from any further embarrassment in the course of investigation into the complaint, for instance, being continuously shunned by the crew of the utility company. There are three main elements in a complaint procedure; first element is the step-by-step procedure within a time frame given for each step in the process of reporting and processing the complaint lodges by the aggrieved person, second element is conducting an investigation procedure, and last element in the complaint procedure is to come out with an appeal procedure that enable the dissatisfied party to re-appeal for an investigationÃ¢â¬â¢s findings to a higher authority. Thus, in dealing with the complaints by Sally, I will then request for a complaint Committee, as what may have been outlined in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Code of Practice on the Prevention and Eradication of Sexual Harrassment in the Workplace. The complaint Committee shall includes at least three representatives from the other departments in the company not including the department of the accuser and the accused employee and the representatives shall have a higher position if compared to the employee that complaints and the employee that is being complaint. I shall also consider to go for a member from the outside counsel that is acquainted in dealing with the issue of sexual harassment. Not to forget, I shall go for a complaint Committee where at least half the members of the Complaints Committee are women and it is better to have Women member as the leader of the Complaints Committee. In setting up the Complaints Committee, I will proposed a tentative day, date, and time to the committee involved asking them to come for an investigation session and the committee shall present at the day, date, and time stated. Thus, in conducting the grievance investigation, separate interview will be held for both the aggrieved person (Sally) and the one who cause the aggrievation (Al). The interviews are done separately as to minimize the possibility of practicing bias and also to test the validity and reliability of the justification given by the parties involved. Apart from that, the investigation is carried out based on the 5W1H approach; who is involved in this case, what have happened, when did the case happened, where did the case takes place, and how did it happened? Both the parties, the aggrieved party (Sally) and the one who caused the aggrievation (Al) are given the fair chance to clarify and justify themselves. Other than the both parties involved, their colleagues l ike another women crew who also works would be called-in for the investigation session as well to know more about the parties involved, for instance, in terms of their attitudes in their working station and their personalities. After that, the Complaints Committee will come out with the final decision on whether Al is really guilty in sexually harassing Sally or not or it is Sally who has wrongly accused Al. The next step is closely linked to the decision made by the Complaints Committee. For instance, if Al was found guilty in sexually harassing Sally, I shall know what disciplinary actions that could be taken onto Al whether by terminating him without notice and showing him show cause letter or warning letter as the Employment Acts 1955 stated that: The individual found guilty of sexual harassment may be dismissed without notice, demoted or penalized with a lesser punishment, e.g. suspension without pay for a period of up to 2 weeks. Same situation applied to Sally, disciplinary actions will be taken if Sally was found guilty in accusing and maligning Al. It may be the possible that Sally is introverted and comes from a very conservative family background complaint that she was physically and verbally har assed. It might also be the case maybe Al was SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s former lover and had end their relationship or Al had fallen on her but she rejected and Al was envy whatÃ¢â¬â¢s more to know that she had engaged with another man who is also the worker in the same company. If both the parties agreed with the final outcomes, the case is closed. But if both the parties do not agreed with the final outcomes, they are allowed to reappeal and the same investigation step will be carried on again. The investigation step will only come to an end when both the parties are agreed with the final outcomes or when one of the parties is proved to be guilty. In this sexual harassment case, if there is no witnesses that could support SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s story, I would conclude that SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s story is not valid. Without any strong supporting elements, the validity of SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s story is being questioned and without any proves, I have to come out with a conclusion that the sexual harassment do not take places as what have been told by Sally. SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s story could only be applicable if there is a strong evidence provided to support that the sexual harassment do take places and it do have the tendency to take place. However, if it really takes place, I will seek solution for the parties who found guilty and also provide some counseling session to help her recover from her emotional and physical injuries. Whether the charges are valid or not, I will transfer Sally to other department if she agrees to avoid the conflict between Al, the crew and herself which might affect her performance or given special attention on the welfare and saf ety of Sally if she has to work at night. c) How might this scenario have been prevented? This scenario can be prevented through several ways which are organization should develop policy statement prohibiting sexual harassment, provide training to employee and employer and take all the complaints of sexual harassment seriously. The organization should develop policy statement prohibiting sexual harassment. Based on The Code, policy statement on sexual harassment is a published message to all the members in organization which aim to create non-sexual harassment working environment. From the Sally case, it is clearly shown the co-worker doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a clear understanding on what sexual harassment is. A clear definition of sexual harassment is required include in the policy so that employee and employer can understand it and try to avoid doing it. Secondly, through provide training to employee and employer also can prevent sexual harassment. An effective policy, tied with training for all employer and employee will help in preventing harassment (Prevention of Sexual Harassment, n.d.). The training should teach what is sexual harassment is, procedure to complaints when facing such situation and etc. This can create awareness for all the staff to prevent sexual harassment with the knowledge gained during the training session. Lastly, the upper management should take complaints seriously rather treat it as small case. From the Sally case, we could see that her supervisor doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t treat it seriously. Instead of taking action on Al but the supervisor ask to keep her sense of humor and he just asked Al to keep his hands to himself. In fact, this obviously is a sexual harassment case and should take action quickly so that SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s right is protected. Due to the failure of taking complaint seriously, Sally being isolated by the co-workers and force to took leave because of job-related stress. It is important for the upper management especially immediate supervisor to take complaints seriously, take action on it, and figure it out whether sexual harassment exists or not. This is to ensure that the victim can be protected from being harass again. In conclusion, this scenario can be prevented through develop policy statement prohibiting sexual harassment, provide training to employee and employer and take all the complaints of sexual harassment seriously. This is to ensure SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s case wonÃ¢â¬â¢t happened again.