Sunday, July 21, 2019

The Basic Tourism System Tourism Essay

The Basic Tourism System Tourism Essay Fennell defined tourism as the interrelated system that includes tourists and the associated services that are provided and utilized facilities, attractions, transportation and accommodation to aid in their movement (Fennell, 1999). 2. Tourism Defined Tourism, according to the Oxford dictionary, is the theory and practice of touring or travelling for pleasure. According to Leiper (1979) the foundations of tourism are thought to have Greek origins, with the term describing a circle, reflecting a key component of tourism, returning to the point of departure (Leiper, 1979: 391). The Leipers model which is also known as the basic tourism system is shown in the figure 1. Figure 1. The Basic Tourism System Source: Leiper (1995) Leiper.N. (2004) Tourism Management (3rd Edn) Frenchs Forest: Pearson p.53 A tourist, as defined by the World Tourism Authority is someone who moves away from home on a temporary or short-term basis for at least 24 hours and less than a year, it can be internal movements within a country (domestic tourism) or going to another country (international tourism) (Law, 2002: 2). McIntosh (1977) described tourism as the science, art and business of attracting and transporting visitors, accommodating them and graciously catering to their needs and wants (McIntosh and Goeldner, 1977: ix). Today, tourism is one of the worlds largest and fastest expanding industries. In 2010, the overall global tourism export exceeded US$ 1 trillion (World Tourism Organization, 2011). Tourism exports are accountable for 30% of the worlds commercial exports and as a category ranks fourth in size after fuels, chemicals and automotive products (World Tourism Organization, 2011). 2.1 Relationship between Tourism and Transportation Transport has a direct connection with the tourism industry. Progression in transportation technology has helped a lot to form the modern tourism industry we are evolving today. Since the beginning of time, people have been traveling by various modes. Tourism and transportation are inexorably linked (McIntosh et al, 1995). Without the element of transport there is by definition, no tourism. This means that, although transport contributes for only a part of the tourism business, without it there is no tourism business. However, transport is essential not only to tourism, it is also essential to the economy and indeed to society (Lockwood and Medlik, 2003). For that when we think of tourism we think of people who travels for main purpose of visiting ,that is, a particular place for sightseeing, visiting friends and relatives, taking a vacation and having a good time (Goeldner et al, 2009). These visitors will use all forms of transportation available. Furthermore, tourism is the entire world industry of travel, hotels, transportation, and all other components, including promotion that caters for the needs and wants of travelers (McIntosh et al, 1995). Thus, tourism can be seen as a whole range of individuals, businesses, organizations and places which works together in some way to deliver a travel experience (Leiper, 1979). In accordance with the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), tourism is the worlds largest industry surpassing autos, steel, electronics, and agriculture (McIntosh et al, 1995). Tourism set off important indirect development effects that improve the quality of life of citizens and enhance a countrys overall economic prospects. Crouch and Ritchie (2000) interestingly summarized (Figure 2) the various factors that together make the attractiveness of a tourist destination experience. Furthermore, they emphasized on the importance of the service infrastructure layer, which includes transport services, in the tourist destination experience. The destinations general infrastructure services in this category in fact represent one of the most important factors. The tourism phenomenon relies heavily on public utilities and infrastructural support. Tourism planning and development would not be possible without roads, airports, harbors, electricity, sewage, and potable water. The infrastructural dimension is thus a necessary element for tourism development and the factors below are all basic elements for attracting visitors to a destination. Kaul (1985) also recognizes the importance of infrastructure, more specifically transport as an essential component of successful tourism development meaning that it encourages the creation of new attractions and the growth of existing ones. Figure 2: The tourist destination experience Source: Crouch and Ritchie (2000) Transportation considered as one of the four main categories of tourism (transportation, accommodation, food and beverage services and other tourism goods and services). Dwyer and Forsyth, (1993) said that transport activities are fundamental for tourism because they provide the connection between generating and destination regions and the ability for tourists to move around the destination, that is, by making use of inland transportation services. The transport industry is also recognized as a central factor in destination development. Transportations included items such as ships, airplanes, buses, trains, limousines, taxis (Nariida et al, 2009), car traveling, (Rodrigue et al, 2009), cog railroads, aerial tramways, and similar passenger transportation facilities. Any and all of these modes may be relevant for tourism or recreational travel. Recreational facilities can include parks, stadiums, sporting facilities, and beaches. Furthermore, tourism sites are attractions for tourists as well as local residents and may include recreational facilities as well as cultural attractions (such as historical, musical, or educational facilities). Each type of recreational or tourism facility can have special and specific transportation needs (Petraglia and Weisbrod, 2004). Car traveling is usually an independent mean of transport. The driver is the one who decides where, when and how he is going to get to a destination. It is usually cheaper since roads fees are not directly paid but rather from taxes. It is the only transportation mode that does not require transfers, in the sense that the whole journey, from door to door can be achieve without even stopping (Rodrigue et al, 2009). Consumers choose cars based primarily on convenience and comfort (remote door openers, navigation systems, sound systems and cup holders) rather than maximum speed (Litman, 2007). Improving the quality of alternative modes is important for attracting discretionary travelers and therefore redu cing traffic problems such as congestion, accidents and pollution emissions (Litman, 2008). Ships as we know water travel is a major of tourism and contributes considerably to the development of travel as well as airplanes. Airplanes such as (Cathay Pacific, Emirates, Royal Jordanian) providing the seats which an individual traveler, business person or tour operator may purchase. On the other hand, rail travelers worldwide often prefer rail travel, (McIntosh et al, 1995). The operators of high-speed rail services find reliability and punctuality important factors that contribute to higher market shares (Jorritsma, 2009). Recently, train operating companies are delivering acceptable (and contractual) standards of service delivery in terms of information, comfort, cleanliness and quality of service on trains and at stations (Lyons et al, 2011) which are very important elements that tourists will consider in their decision process. High Speed Rail advantages are many, including getting people quickly and comfortably (Kinstlinger, 2009). But in Mauritius since we do not have tr ains therefore we will not lay much more emphasis on them. Consequently, having adequate taxi, limousine services are essential in a tourist area. Ideally, taxis should have removable and washable seat covers so the car always presents a clean appearance to the passenger. Also the taxi driver to make the best impression should show some courtesy by dismounting from the drivers seat and open the door for the passenger. He or she should assist his/ her passengers concerning their luggage or any other stuff and be courteous all times. Training taxi drivers in foreign language would ease communication and therefore create more foreign language ability (McIntosh et al, 1995). Usually, it is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, providing a service to those who may have no other form of transportation. Therefore, Taxi service is a very important source of demand response transportation in many communities (Ridley, 2006). Moreover, buses are the most likely transit mode, which inten ded for tour use should have large windows, air conditioning, comfortable seats and rest room facilities. Springs or other suspension systems in the coaches should be designed so that the joggling of passenger is kept to a minimum or eliminated. Personnel assigned to buses should be selected for suitable temperament, courtesy and spirit of hospitality (McIntosh et al, 1995). Bus Rapid Transit is considered a more affordable alternative to rail for improving transit service quality and attracting travelers who would otherwise drive on congested urban corridors (VTPI, 2007). Bus organization, bus industry advocates believe that this form of transportation is particularly well suited to certain needs of tourism, especially one way trips of 150 miles or less. Furthermore, rental cars an important aspect of automobile travel is the rental car industry, whose growth has been paralleling or exceeding the growth in air travel. Taxi and Limousine service companies play an increasingly import ant part in tourism. Local transportation companies perform essential services for airlines in servicing departing and arriving passengers as well as providing similar services for bus, rail, and shipping lines (McIntosh et al, 1995). When taking a look at the position occupied by the various modes of passenger transportation one find that air travel dominates long -distance and middle-distance tourism. The nations economy and the tourism industry need a healthy air transportation system. The private automobile dominates for shorter trips and is the most popular means of travel for most domestic journeys. The auto is also very important in regional and international tourism. Affordability, flexibility, and convenience make auto travel the most popular mode of transportation all over the world. Air is the primary competitor to the automobile when it comes to travel, especially for long trips. The advantages of air travel, the quantity of service, speed and comfort must be weighed by travelers against the automobiles advantages of price and accessibility (McIntosh et al, 1995). But in Mauritius since it is an island, it is mainly accessible from air and the sea, therefore this type of competition does not exist. Furthermore, it is important to consider demand and supply when talking about transportation as they are together forming the transport market (Lockwood and Medlik, 2003). Many of the components of the tourist trip for example, transport and accommodation are demands derived from the consumers desire to enjoy what a destination has to offer in terms of things to see and do (Cooper et al, 2008). So, demand and supply are the main components which made up the transportation industry. 2.2 Transport Supply and Demand It is very important for a country to have the most efficient transport system. Efficiency means to say that the transportation system need to satisfy the transport demand for freight and passengers by using the best systems and the most appropriate balance between public and private transport and between modes of transport (For example; rail or road). The objective is to decrease overall transport costs for the collectively including direct costs (operating costs of the rolling stocks, the costs of infrastructure and the costs of time, security and comfort) and indirect costs (such as noise, pollution, accidents etc.) Transport supply can be defined in terms of infrastructures (capacity), services (frequency) and networks (coverage). Capacity is often assessed in static and dynamic terms the number of passengers, volume (for liquids or containerized traffic), or mass (for freight) that can be transported per unit of time and space is commonly used to quantify transport supply (Rodri gue et al, 2009), and these depend on the four basic elements in any transportation system: the way, the terminal, and the vehicle and motive power (Cooper et al, 2008). Transport demand is expressed as transport needs, even if those needs are satisfied, fully, partially or not at all. Similar to transport supply, it is expressed in terms of number of people, volume, or tons per unit of time and space (Rodrigue et al, 2009), other refers it to the amount of mobility and accessibility people would consume under various conditions (ITE, 2003). There is a demand for tourism products and demand for alternative non-tourism products (Lockwood and Medlik, 2003). Tourism demand and non-tourism demand will not only determine whether we travel but also which travel mode we choose, should we decide to travel, and indeed which particular service and carrier we choose. Principal among these features, other than physical transplant, are the following: speed, frequency, comfort, safety, availability, user information, access and price. For each mode is dictated by the weakest element in the system (Cooper et al, 2008). Speed in assessing the value placed, on speed it is important to take account not only of time saved but also of reduced journey time. For most people the ideal is to travel without any perceptible duration of time, not only because it would give up more time for doing other things (including doing nothing) but also because it would remove the many unpleasant aspects of travel that have to be endured when transiting to other places. This mean that we all display a stronger preference for speed and for paying a premium price for speed, than can be explained by the value place on time saved (Lockwood and Medlik, 2003). Transport system performance is often evaluated based on travel speed and distance (Litman, 2008A), some transport system changes intended to increase travel speeds and save travel time tend to reduce other forms of accessibility and increase travel time costs for other users (Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 2011) So, speed is an important feature to consider when t aking about transportation as people are limited in time and since lost time cannot be recovered tourists will rather prefer to have a rapid transportation system while visiting a destination. Frequency is another feature of transport that is to be considered as a good frequency of transport will mean that there is a greater possibility to use transport. But still if a particular route is not profitable there will be an inevitable decrease in the frequency level. Most public service vehicles notably trains, are so large in relation to expected traffic that economic operation can usually be achieved-except on a few high volume routes only by reducing frequencies to levels that are often unacceptable in the marketplace (Lockwood and Medlik, 2003), and for availability. Service availability trends reflect changes in demand, mileage, taxi fares and to a lesser extent transit fares (Consulting, 2000). Therefore frequency and service availability is mainly based on the demand for transportation. Comfort, safety and convenience significantly influence transportation decisions. Consumers choosing a motor vehicle are as likely to decide base on seat comfort and the ease of using navigation systems as on more quantitative factors such as speed, price or fuel efficiency (Litman, 2011). Tourists will travel in a mode of transport in respect to the satisfaction the will get from it and here when taking about comfort, the tourists will somehow benchmark the product available in their own countries so as to choose a mode of transport they will prefer to travel in. Prideaux (2000) argued that if the ability of tourists to travel to preferred destinations is inhibited by inefficiencies in the transport system such as uncompetitive prices or lengthy and uncomfortable journey, the likelihood that they will seek alternative destinations may increase. The quality of information can affect the functional availability and desirability of mobility and accessibility options. For example, motorists need actual and appropriate information on travel routes, roadway conditions (such as when congestion, construction and accidents delay traffic), vehicle services, and the availability and price of parking. Potential transit users need information on transit routes, schedules, fares, comfort factors (such as whether vehicles will have seats or stations will have washrooms), and access to destinations. There are many ways to provide transportation information, including maps, brochures, websites and telephones systems (Litman, 2008A). Also Information centers, welcome centers, and information displays are all ways in which visitors can be informed and guided to use appropriate travel routes and transportation facilities (Petraglia and Weisbrod, 2004). Finally, Price cost are the final essential elements in transport to consider. As the most price-sensitive user of fuel, airlines are again proving to be the first to suffer. In the case of surface transport, the effects are masked by the unfair taxation which so distorts the market that accurate forecasting requires advance knowledge of how politicians are going to tax as well as subsidize the various competing forms of transport (Lockwood and Medlik, 2003). Price is also a very important feature to consider as tourists will look for competitive prices so as to travel. Therefore these are the main features that are considered so as to travel, whether it is a tourist or not. These features are considered by anyone who needs to travel and these features will determine the satisfaction of the customer. Customer satisfaction is the aim of any industry as satisfied customers are more economical to an organisation as they not only generate repeat business but they also recommend the service or product to others. 2.3 Service Quality, Customer Perception and Satisfaction A review of the existing literature indicates a wide variance in the definitions of satisfaction and service quality. The customer could judge the quality a service delivered as good but they may not have had satisfaction from the experience (Randall and Senior, 1996). Crompton and Mackay (1989) acknowledged that satisfaction and service quality are not the same thing, stating, Satisfaction is a psychological outcome emerging from an experience, whereas service quality is concerned with the attributes of the service itself. Parasuraman et al. (1988) agreed but stated that customers use the same criteria to judge both, as they are interrelated. Customer satisfaction can be experienced in diverse situations and interrelated to both goods and services. It is a highly personal assessment that is greatly affected by customer expectations. Satisfaction also is based on the customers experience of both contact with the organization (the moment of truth as it is called in business literature ) and personal outcomes (Mack and Peter, 1989). Hunt (1977) defines satisfaction as a kind of stepping away from an experience and evaluating it. Oliver (1997) notes that satisfaction is the consumers fulfillment response, it is a judgment of a product or service feature, or product or service itself in its ability to provide a pleasurable level of consumption related fulfillment, including levels of under or over fulfillment. Most of service quality writers have considerable difficulty in understanding how customers judge services. One of the original service quality theories is that customers are satisfied when their judgement of the service they have received (perception) equals or exceeds what they expected: Customer Satisfaction Equation Customer Satisfaction (CS) = Perceptions (P) = Expectation (E) Gap analysis theory (Zeithaml et al., 1990) Olivers expectancy disconfirmation (Anderson Fornell, 1994; Olivier 1997) 2.3.1 Customer Expectation Zeithaml et al. (1990) considered that the factors that influence customers formulation of their expectations are word of mouth, personal experience, external communications and past experience. Parasuraman et al. (1988) tried to set customer expectations to context by suggesting that they are what an organisation should offer. So, a customer should expect the product or service to be in a specific standard. C:UsersnathanielDownloadsMGT613_Handouts_(Lecture_1_-_45)_img_55.jpg Figure 3: Basic Perceived Service Quality Model Based on figure 3, a basic perceived service quality model, we can say that the customers will decide whether they is satisfied by matching their expectation of the service to the perception derived from the service experienced. In an attempt to know the customer satisfaction, we must know what is the perception of the customer. 2.3.2 Customer Perception The final part of the customer satisfaction equation is their judgement of the service they have received: their perceptions. Olivier (cited in Taylor, 1997) defined customer perception as a comparison to excellence in service by the customer. It is often considered that customer perceptions of a service are made at the end of a service encounter. Customer perceptions of a service are a complex series of judgement made during and at the end of the experience but are modified by a range of factors including their mood, importance of the encounter. The tourism and leisure industry has to be aware of these elements, especially when designing methods of receiving feedback from customers. Customer satisfaction therefore needs us to think in a holistic manner by considering various factors that can affect it. 2.4 Transportation services in Mauritius. 2.4.1 Air Transportation Mauritius is an island and therefore the main access to the island is the air. The Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam International Airport, the airport of Mauritius, consists of one runway which cover a distance of over 3,047 m. The airport is situated in plaisance nearly the south of the island. Air Mauritius is the name of the national airline of the island. Air Mauritius Limited, doing business as  Air Mauritius, is the  flag carrier  of  Mauritius. The airline is headquartered at the Air Mauritius Centre in Port Louis, Mauritius. The company is the fourth largest carrier in  Sub-Saharan Africa,  and has an important standing in the  European,  African, and  Indian Ocean  region markets; the airline won the 2011 Indian Ocean Leading Airline Prize, making it the seventh year in a row for it to win the award. Out of a five-star ranking, the carriers inflight service is awarded 3 stars by Skytrax. As of July 2011, the Air Mauritius route network consists of 26 destinations in  Africa,  Asia,  Europe, and  Oceania.  Shanghai  became the 26th destination served by the company in early July 2011.  In February 2012, the airline announced the suspension of some non-profitable routes, starting with  Milan,  Melbourne, and  Sydney, effective May 2012. As of April 2012, Air Mauritius has  codeshare agreements  with the various following companies, which are the actual operators on the routes specified: Air France, on the Port Louis-Paris-Port Louis route and on several  European  routes radiating from Paris Emirates, on the Port Louis-DubaÃÆ' ¯-Port Louis route Malaysia Airlines, on some routes radiating from  Kuala Lumpur South African Airways, on the Port Louis-Johannesburg-Port Louis route   The Air Mauritius fleet consists of the following equipment, with an average age of 8.8 years: Mauritius has well organised its air transport so as to reach the markets that it has targeted for the tourism industry development. 2.4.2 Maritime Transport The Maritime transport in Mauritius is mainly focused on cargoes and merchandising. Tourism is not really at stake when talking about maritime transportation but still there are passenger ships which go to Reunion Island, Rodrigues and also Agalega Island. So these ships take tourists to the island. Cruise ships are another way where tourists can visit the island. The CRO (Central Statistics Office) published statistics for the year 2011 where it can be noted that total arrivals by sea included 29,900 cruise travellers (around 14,220 tourists, 5,500 excursionists, 330 Mauritian residents and 9,850 crews) aboard 18 cruise ships, which visited our port during the first nine months of 2011. Therefore we can conclude that there are tourists who travel to Mauritius by sea. 2.4.3 Public Transport The public transport in Mauritius consists mainly of the buses, the taxis and the car rentals. The most usual way of transport for Mauritian people is the bus. Bus is a quite easy way of transport in the island. The two main bus companies in Mauritius are the NTC (National Transport Corporation) and the UBS (United Bus services). These two companies deserve almost every regions of the island. Here is a list of all bus companies in Mauritius; NTC National Transport Corporation UBS United Bus Service RHT Rose Hill Transport TBS Triolet Bus Service IO Individual Operators MBT Mauritian Bus Transport Another way of transport and more comfortable is the taxis. A taxi  is a  mode of transport  that falls between  taxis  and  buses. These  vehicles for hire  are typically smaller than buses and usually take passengers on a fixed or semi-fixed route without timetables, but instead departing when all seats are filled. They may stop anywhere to pick up or drop off passengers. Often found in  developing countries,  the vehicles used as share taxis range from four-seat cars to minibuses.  They are often owner operated. Taxis are found in almost every corner of the towns, cities and villages in Mauritius. These taxis are individually owned as there are no taxi companies in Mauritius. In spite of those the taxis are well maintained and very comfortable. Mauritian taxis do not use a taxi meter even if they have it in their taxis, so it is usual here before entering a taxi to decide of the price before. A taxi driver knows usually all the interesting places of the island and therefore can help the tourists to go to a destination. Car rental can also be a good mode of transport in Mauritius. A car rental agency generally rents  automobiles  for short periods of time (generally ranging from a few hours to a few weeks) for a fee. In Mauritius it has become quite common to rent cars as various car agencies are offering this service now. Below is a list of car rental agencies that are available in Mauritius; Avis Rent Car Ada ABC Car Rental Budget Rent A Car Hertz Easy Drive Rent A Car Europcar National Car Rental In Mauritius these are the main in land public transport that is available for the citizens and also for the tourists. There are also some companies like Mauritour and Summertimes who offer small buses on rent to tourists who come to Mauritius and these buses are mainly for tourists. 2.5 Importance of Public transportation and inland transportation. Khadaroo and Seetanah (2008) link the importance of an effective and accessible transportation system to the length of time any given tourist would stay in one particular area in a destination. They go on to argue that if the ability of a tourist to travel within a preferred destination is hampered by inefficiencies in the transport system, then the tourist, may seek out alternative destinations. In regards to this identification by Khadaroo and Seetanah (2008) transport to and from the airport is viewed as perhaps the most essential element of a tourist city. This linkage plays an important role delivering visitors from the airport to the main area of accommodation, most commonly in the central city. Law (2002) stated that in the absence of such facilities, as with the city of Florence, it can be a deterrent for potential visitors (Law, 2002: 71). Public transport and other inland transportation services, like taxi or rented cars, provide an important role in enhancing accessibility to the various tourism attractions within a city. Meanwhile, Khadaroo and Seetanah (2008) noted that inadequate public transport provision in an urban environment can result in limiting the amount of attractions visited, resulting in negative implications on the potential tourism revenue of a city. This inability to derive maximum benefits with an inefficient transport network was also emphasised by Kaul (1985). Kaul recognised that transport plays an important role in the successful creation and development of new tourist attractions within a city and also regarded transport as a catalyst for many city transformations. Within this recognition was the fact that transport and accessibility were essential for profitable tourist attractions. Leask et al., (2000) also noted the significant connection between tourist attractions and tourism transportation, stating that transport and tourism have a close relationship due to the need for access (Leask et al., 2000: 212). In the past accessibility to attractions has been based primarily on access by private modes, however, by not providing public transport connections, the number of visitors that can reach an attraction are consequently reduced. Gimeno and Vita (2006) also recognised that the easier it is made for tourists to travel between points of interest, the visitor gains more ability to participate in activities, which in turn will generate enhanced tourism revenue for the destination (Gimeno and Vita, 2006: 14). When talking about public transportation and inland transportation, we should also think of who are those tourists who will travel in the p ublic transportation services available in a destination. Lew and Mckercher (2006) noted that tourists have access to four basic modes of transport within a destination personal vehicle, commercial vehicles in organized tours, public transportation and walking. However, conventional public transport system tends to remain majorly inaccessible/ non-preferred mode of transport to tourists for various reasons (Law, 2002): unfamiliarity with the system and the associated risk of entering terra incognita (unknown territory) should they choose the wrong bus route or get off at the wrong stop (Lew and Mckercher, 2006: pp. 408), need for negotiation with the staff in local language and a system design optimized to cater to everyday needs of the local population (Lumsdon, 2006; Thompson Schofield, 2007) Specialised or custom made tourism transport potentially offers a higher level of accessibility to tourists within the destination. While a large segment of such services is covered under tourist packages offered by private operators, there remains a definitive demand for tourism-specific public transport within the destinations. A large segment of tourists choose not to opt for tourist packages due to lack of flexibility in the choice of both tourist spots and lodging, higher costs and a reduced adventure factor. As such intra-destination public transport can become a vital factor in tourists choice of destination and their ability to access their nodes of interest within the destination. These types of tourists will use the transportation services available in the destination to travel by themselves. Therefore in this research I will aim at categorizing the tourists who prefer travelling by them and not to choose a ready-made package for their travelling at the destination. Another important facto

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